Lépõ, Zoltán



or heading to a New Paradigm

“In Memoriam Ota Zenshaku”




Lester Brown cite the American economist Herman Daly in his study entitled “New World Order” : something is mistaken in the process of dealing with our temporal affairs, just as if our planet would be a business-enterprise undertaken liquidation, similarly to the corporate, which sell out its factories with an accounting-system, in which no trace of such deals.

Our life is basing on a questionable counting-system selling out our future, since we satisfy our present needs on the expense of our children, while believing, that we develop, since the all global economic growth of the 80’s was bigger, as of thousands of years from the beginning of civilization to 1950. The protecting ozone layer above the nothern hemisphere is growing thin two times faster as the scientist believed not long ago, but our optimistimism is unshakable. Daily 140 types of flora and fauna, yearly 17 million of hectares of forests are vanishing. The growth of the population of the Earth is 92 million in every year, 88 million is in that Third World, where 1,2 billion people has no safely drinkable water, 1 billion people can’t write and read, and 100 million children not visit schools. The 83% of the Earth’s income is enjoyed by the 23% of its inhabitants. But the economy of the so called “developed world” pumps the 2/3 of the gas causing “greehouse-effect” to the atmosphere, 75% of their cemicals cause acid rains, their industry produce the most dangerous vastes, 90% of the ozone-layer destroyer freon-gas come from them. The affluence followed the WW2 caused callings similar of Victor Lebow’s, the analyst of the American retail trade: the unbelivable productivity of the economy demand the creation rite of consumption, and satisfaction of an egocentric, indulgent way of life, so the Americans with the richer part of the world enthusiastically answered it(1.,), and the growth-centered model became the pillar of present global value-system, serving as an example for the rest of the world. This world make that quantity of goods daily, which were produced within a year in 1900. The biosphere is a “non-profit” system, which has self-regerating ability, and high degree of adaptability within wide limits. But its process is circular, and its difference with the linear process of technosphere is striking, since it run counter to each other: the former harmonious biosphere-technosphere relation degenerated into confrontation. The nature is good collaborator, and in case of intelligent human intervention it has great equalization ability, though not endless. For today the technosphere crossed over limits, causing deserts, acid rains, greenhouse-effect, etc., and the tendency is accelerated. As we know from physics or from the practice of traffic, the end of a constantly growing speed is a big clap. But there is an other aspect since the World Bank’s 1992-report inform us about recent developments: the per capita national income decreased in the world’s 49 countries (2.,). At beginning of 1992 the report of U.S. National Academy of Science and the Royal Society of London prove, that if the present rate of population-growth will remain while the way of human behaviour not changing, the science not will prevent the irremediable destruction of environment and the improverishment of greater part of the world. Since 9000 kind of birds are endangered further on, and only the forests of Europe are vanishing with 16% speed yearly, while the wood- and grass-cover-descrease is associated with the huge loss of croplands, consequently the supply-system of the environment of economy itself is going to be bankrupt. Due to a misleading economic, and a non-existent biological accounting system, the growing economy undermine itself and may be ruined, since the systems of its foundation is going to be destroyed (4.,).

Although the last of above datas became published in 1993, the situation became worse since. The chilling account of a new publication is a clear evidence of the siucidal caracter of our present mentality, which is threating our mere survival. Not enough known, that nerves are only one avenue of communication, and the larger part the body’s internal information-change is carried out by hormones: the biological equivalent of information superhighway. The side-effect of chemical industry (responsible for environmental pollution) started the disruption of this network causing hormone havoc with feminizing males and masculnalizing females, but it causing hormone-responsible cancers too. Moreover there is a more serious problem also: the avarage male sperm account decreased into the half in the past half century, and the ratio of male hormone “testosterene” is decreasing. There is a profound connection between the brain and hormone-system, which effect not only our reproductive, but our creative ability too: since the sperm-production and “testosterone”-level affect brain development, memory and learning. We are the eyewitness of widespread erosion of the human potential, since the disintegration of families, neglect, abuse and increasing violence on the streets and schools are in profound connection with this. We worry about the alteration of caracteristicals, which make us uniquely human, and we fear not of extinction, but rather a fate, which is more worse, than extinction. We are flying blind (5.,).

But some of us want to overcome this blindness, and for them the way of thinking used by Stanislav Grof, Ervin László, Peter Russell would be useful, since the mankind maybe arrived to the biggest challange of its history. To handle this challange, we must touch not the symptomes, but the final causes, and the time is here to reconsider our overall theories about universe, mankind, evolution and development, and reconstruct our picture of existence with creation of a new paradigm, since the human being is able to develop further on. But to realize this ability, we must find out ways, with which we will be able to switch our materialistic consciousness into a non-materialistic one. The basic question is, whether we can realize it, and if we can, how we can make faster it? Every detail is important, and may happen, that just a recently found little particle is able to became the center arranging the other things around itself, helping the spiritual awakening (6.,).

Maybe a new kind of perception of history can be that little particle.





The concept of Prof. William McNeil challanges the view of Spengler-Toynbee about separate civilizations pursued independent careers, arguing, that the cultures of mankind had basic interrelations at every stage of history. The theme of cultural diffusion is dominating his book, taking full account of civilisation’s expansion east- and westwards from its birthplace in the Fertile Crescent (7.,).

The area’s best important culture was the Sumerian. The pioneer of Sumerology, Henry Rawlinson define this diffusion under the subtitle “Ante-Semitic Period”: “If we examine the traditions of the Greeks, as distinguished from their heroic myths, we trace everywhere a belief in the existence of a Scythic domination of Asia, at the dawn of history...Plutarch and Pliny...place the age of the Scythic Zoroaster 5000 years before the Troyan war...How long the aboriginal Scyths may have held the dominion of Western Asia...still the matter of speculation whether the prae-historic period may be more correctly estimated at two thousand or four thousand years...They...passed in one direction by Southern Persia into India, in another, ...spread themselves at the same time over Syria and Asia Minor, sending out colonies from one country to...Sicily and Iberia...to the southern coasts of Greece and Italy. They further, probably, occupied the whole area of modern Persia, and thence proceeding to the north by Chalcis and the Caucasus, they penetrated to the extreme nothern point of the European and Asian continents” (8., 302-307). Such current of events was enforced by Mircea Eliade too, the founder of the science of comparative religion, since according to him: the East-Asian culture is the survival of that once flowered ancient Central-Asian culture, which is came from the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia (9.,). The Japanese art-historian Prof. Higuchi Takayasu of Kyoto University wrote something similar, maintaining: the caracteristic red pottery of the Yellow River civilization, the mark of Chinese culture’s start, is originated from the Samarra civilization (10., /The Route of Buddhist Art/,195). Similarities also can be found between Sumerian, Transylvanian and Chinese ideograms, which prove the same (11.,) /pict.1./, while a Japanese chart of culture-diffusion can show the obvious origin of the ancient world-culture(12.,). Nevertheless the semantic identity of cosmic principle of the great archaic cultures, as the Mesopotamian “Asa”, Old-Egyptian “Maat”, Vedic-Indian “Rta”, and later “Dharma” as well as Chinese “Tao” (13.,) also suggest the existence of an ancient Eurasian spiritual unity of Mesopotamian origin, since the Jewish and Greek tradition grown out from it too (14.,).

The outer appearances of this ancient Eurasian unity flowered in local differences, as the Finn is differ from the Portugal, the Russian from the Irish, or the Greek from a Dutchman within the cultural unity of present Europe. If a caracteristic unity determined the huge Eurasian continent, the question can be rised rightfully: what kind of spirituality served as the substance of it? According to Eliade, it was that shamanism, which defend life, health and fertility or the world of “light” against the world of “darkness” means death, illness and sterility. The shaman fight against the “forces of evil”: he is the specialist of sacrality, his duty is the interpretation of the demands of a higher reality. He prove the reality of that higher level of existence, where the possibility of overcoming of the not desirable states is exist, where the Transcendence of negative situations is possible. Here everything is possible, and the perfect Freedom is realizable, since it is rooted deeply in that best hidden layers of our innermost self, which is unfoldable, and by which unfolding, the powers of cosmos hiding in ourself would be freed.

Since our suicidal age is quite ignorant about the obvious and vast possibility of such kind of Transcendence, and about we must feel enough responsibility for the future of our children to Enlight ourselves about this level of existence.





For such unfolding, we may consider the Chinese poem of Ming rock-inscription dated on spring of 1556 in the light of this archaic unity, we have enough reason to suppose, that the core of it semiotically Chinese only, but semantically it is the same as the “Asa-Maat-Rta-Dharma” principle:

Vast indeed is the Ultimate Tao,
Spontanously itself, apparently without acting,
End of all ages and beginning of all ages,
Existing before Earth and existing before Heaven,
Silently embracing the whole of time,
Continuing uninterrupted through all eons,
In the East is taught Father Confucius,
In the West is converted the “Golden Man”(the Buddha)
Taken as pattern by a hundred kings,
Transmitted by the generation of sages,
It is the ancestor of all doctrines,
The mystery beyond all mysteries. (15., 8)

Since the Confucionism (the cloth of the Chinese spirit) embrance the horizontal, or social aspects of being, the shamanistic Taoism (the substance of Chinese spirit) and Buddhism do it with the spiritual, or vertical aspects of our existence. These shamanistic factors are united in the Neo-Confucionism, which can enpower a civilization with such kind of dynamism, which we may experience in East Asia. Hence this poem is the reflection of Neo-Confucian ideals, which system probably rightfully can be regarded as the practical crystallization of the ancient Eurasian unity, or the reformed form of the original Mesopotamian culture, but this basically Mesopotamian way of thinking - “The ancestor of all doctrines, The mystery beyond all mysteries” - leave enough space for the Westernization of some aspects of it, since with it we may became enough effective to find the way-out from our present dead-lock. If we are too doubtful about it, following the suggestions of our too materialistic mentality only, useful to take a glance to the next rank proving changes of the recent decades:




In 1975:

In 1995:

In 1975:

In 1995:

1. Exxon

Mitsubishi Corp

1. Bank of America


General Motors

Mitsui and Co.

2. Citycorp

Dai-Ichi Kangyo

Royal Dutch Shell

Itochu Corp

3. Chase Manhattan



Sumitomo Corp.

4. Banque Nat. de Paris


Ford Motor

General Motors

5. Dai-Ichi Kangyo


Mobil Oil

Marubeni Corp.

6. Barclays


Nat.Iranian Oil

Ford Motor

7. Deutsche Bank


British Petrol


8. Nat. Wesminster

Industr. Bank of Japan

Standard Oil

Nissho Iwai Group

9. Credit Lyonnai

Long-Term Credit


Royal Dutch Shell

10. Sumitomo

Deutsche Bank


Surely, this rank was valid only in 1995, but it is obvious, that the economic center of gravity is swifted to a direction. Since the economy is living organism, and the moving force behind is a culture, in the case of appropriately high degree of honesty and openness, we may consider the mobilizing power of Neo-Confucian principles of East-Asia, as similar system of that one, which was ours too, when the ancient Eurasian unity still existed. Namely the time is here to reconsider some aspects of history in connection with this unity, with which we may overcome our present alienation not only to the deeper, more organic levels of our innermost self, but to that cosmos and the wider perception of nature, since due to the huge proportions of alienation, the human being is close to die out like dynosaur. Hence the mankind is in “dynosaur-syndrome” (16., 135-138), we must search after radically new methods for that moral revolution, which would be enough to reshape our way of thinking at least so effectively, as the Great French Revolution did.

But how? Let’s try to answer it with some not too known aspects of Christianity.



In Asia is held, that Jesus spent 14 years in India, hence the similarity of Buddhism and Christianity and he was the earliest manifestation of the Bodhisattwa-ideal of the newly established Mahayana-Buddhism (17.,). The British scholar of Buddhism, Edward Conze also suggest, that the source of Christianity is the Indian Buddhism (18.,).

Let’s examine the phenomene more profoundly due to an astonishing archeological discovery of an Arab peasant. In December of 1945 Muhammad Ali while is digging in Nag Hammadi of Upper Egypt, he hit an almost meter high red earthenware jar, in which he discovered thirteen papyrus books, bound in lether (18., xiii). These writings speaks about acts and sayings of Jesus, entirely different from New Testament and the known Christian tradition. According to the ortodox Christian tradition, huge distance separate mankind and its creator: God is substantially other. But the gnostics, who wrote these texts, say: self-knowledge is knowledge of God, the self and divine is identical. The “living Jesus” of these gospels speaks of illusion and enlightenment, not of sin and penitence as Jesus of the New Testament do. Instead of coming to save us from our sins, he open ways to spiritual understanding, but when the disciple attains enlightenment, Jesus no longer exist as master, but the two will became equal and identical. Such teaching seems to be more Eastern, than Western, and some researchers suggest, that in case of name-change, the “living Buddha” would say almost the same, as the “living Jesus” of the “Gospel of Thomas”. The ortodox Hippolytus of Rome wrote about the sources of Christian gnosticism at A.D. 225: “There is...among the Indians a heresy of those, who philosophize among Bramins, who live a selfsufficient life, abstaining from (eating) living creatures...They say, that God is light, not like the light one sees, nor like the sun nor fire, but to them God is discourse, not that which find expression in articulate sounds, but that of knowledge (gnosis) through which the secret mysteries of nature are perceived by the wise” (19., I. 24.). The Orientalism of these gnostic scriptures suggest, that Eastern and Western religions were not separated 2000 years ago, and they were rather Oriental than Occidental in the early period (18.,). The zen-koan-like sayings of “living Jesus” in these texts are both cryptic and compelling: “Jesus said: If you bring forth what is within you, what you bring forth will save you. If you do not bring forth what is within you, what you do not bring forth will destroy you” /Gospel of Thomas/ (20., 126, cited by 18.,). These gnostic gospels were Coptic translations, made 1500 years ago from ancient Greek manuscripts circulated widely from Gaul through Rome, Greece and Asia Minor. In the 13 books and papyrus pages found there are 52 texts of the earliest Christian gospels previously unknown. Besides the “Gospel of Thomas” and “Gospel of Philip”, the finding include the “Gospel of Truth” and the “Gospel of Egyptians”, which identifies itself as “the (sacred) Book of the Great Invisible (Spirit) as it is explained in the “Apocryon of John” (20., cited by 18.,). Another group of texts such as the “Secret Book of James”, the “Apocalypse of Paul”, the “Letter of Peter to Philip” and the “Apocalypse of Peter” attributed to Jesus’ followers. But why the manuscripts became buried and why have they remained unknown for almost 2000 years? Their supression and burial reflect struggle in the earliest period of Christianity, when the gnostics were denounced as heresy by ortodox Christians. One of the leading crusaders agains gnosticism was the Bishop of Lyon, Irenaeus, who wrote his big work around A.D.180 entitled “The Destruction and Overthrow of Falsely So-called Knowledge”, which begin with his promise to “set forth the views of those who are now teaching heresy...to show how absurd and inconsistent with the truth are their statements...I do this so that...you may urge all those with whom you are connected to avoid such an abyss of madness and of blasfemy against Christ” (21., cited by 18.,). Fifty years later Hippolytus wrote his massive attack on gnosticism entitled “Refutation of All Heresies” to “oppose and refute the wicked blasphemy of the heretics” (19.,). With this the huge campaign started against “heresy”, which became stopped a millenia later with the liquidation of the instuition of Holy Inquisition, but which crusade involved an involuntary admission of the persuasive power of gnostic Christianity. By time of the conversion of Emperor Constantine the ortodox Christianity became an officially approved religion in the 4th century, bishops previously victimized by the police, now commanded them. Copies of such books were burned, but someone in Nag Hammadi saved them from destruction, where they remained for 1600 years (18., xix).

The creator of these texts did not regarded themselves as “heretics”, but offer secret traditions of Jesus similar to Tantric Buddhism, different from that, which became the “universal catholic church” in the 2nd century. These “heretic” Christians are now called gnostics, from the Greek word gnosis usually translated as knowledge, but probably the insight would be more appropriate, since it is basing on the intuitive process of knowing oneself. According to the teacher Theodotus (c.140-160), the gnostic one can understand: “who we were, and what we have become, where we were...whither we hastening, from what we are being relased, what birth is and what is rebirth” (18.,xix). Yet to know oneself in the deepest level, means to know God. Another gnostic teacher, Monoimus say: “Abandon the search for God...Look for him by taking yourself as the starting point. Learn who is within you...and...you will find him in yourself” (48., xx). These caracteristicals of the gnostic writings suggest: the earliest Christianity based on Buddhist tenets. But why these writings banned as “heresy”, and why they were so dangerous? Tertullian, a brilliant ortodox wrote in his “De Carne Christi”, that “it must be believed, because it is absurd” a motto of “universal catholic church”, but the gnosticism was against absurdity, and according to gnostics, only their gospels disclose the true, but secret teachings of Jesus, which is obvious for those, who experience “gnosis”. But truth became rejected by ortodoxs, since the gnostic writings reverse the pattern of New Testament gospels, which according to Ireneaus are written by the disciples of Jesus. Contemporary scholars challanged this view and few believe it today, since we know nothing about the persons named Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (18., 17). That’s why the gnostic writings call the ortodox intstuition as “imitation church” and the bishops as “waterless canals” (18., 25, 27). Gnostic Christians assumed: they gone far beyond the New Testament. The gnostic God is understood, as the ultimate source of all being called “the depth”, became described in the “Tripartite Tractate” like Hindu “Dharma” or Chinese “Tao”: as an invisible, incomprehensible primal principle of existence (20., 55). Also, the absence of feminine symbolism of God marking Judaism, ortodox Christianity and Islam is in striking contrast to the ancient spiritual traditions growing out from the cults of Fertile Crescent. The gnostic sources use sexual symbolism to describe God, giving him a masculofeminine caracter, or speak of God as a dyad who embrance both masculine and feminine elements. He is both Father and Mother. Some gnostic group show the divine Mother as the part of the original couple, without the Father can not be almighty. The divine is imagined as dyad: partly the Depth, the Primal Father, partly the Grace, the Womb and “Mother of All”. This Womb receives the seed of Source, from this she brings forth all of the emanations of divine beings, ranged in harmonious pairs of masculine and feminine energies. This approach is well-known in Tantra(22.,). In the text of Valentinus: “May She, the incomprehensible and indescrible Grace, fill you within, and increase in you her own knowledge” is almost the same as the Tantric Shakti, the universal female principle. In the gnostic text “Great Announcement” “a great power, the Mind of Universe, which manages all things...is a male...the other...a great Intelligence...is a female which produces all things” (18., 48-51) is related to the Tantric Sun-Moon or Taoist Yin-Yang symbolism. In Tantric Buddhism Buddha’s consort is Wisdom. The “Gospel of Philip” show Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ consort, manifestation of divine Wisdom: “...the companion of (the Savoir is) Mary Magdalene. (But Christ loved) her more than (all) the disciples and used to kiss her (often) on her (mouth)...” The gnostic text called“Dialogue of the Savior” includes Mary Magdalene as one chosen to receive special teaching, but also praises: “she spoke as a woman who knew the All” (18., 64). According to the “Gospel of Thomas”, Jesus ridiculed those, who though of the “Kingdom of God” in a literal terms as if it were a specific place, instead, it is the state of self-discovery, or rather a state of altered consciousness, as we may follow the words of Jesus: “When you make the two one, and...when you make the male and the female one and the same...then you will enter (the Kingdom)” (18., 128-129). It is an other realm, but such a territory, when something important can be started in the Tantric tradition. By this way we may understand the original meaning of Mark 9:1 and 14:62 of New Testament about the coming of the Kingdom of God with Power: since it is a powerful state of altered consciousness, when the male and female are one and same. In this state we are the part of Creation as Creators, since Luke 17:21 say: “the kingdom of God is within you”. According to gnostic Christians, real human liberation can not occur throught actual events of history, but through internal transformation. Hence the ortodox Christians accused the gnostics with magic, and the gnostics identified themselves as the follower of a man accused of magic (23.,). But what kind of magic is it? The stimulation of psychosomatic forces with the appropriate control can be called so, or that, by words of the gnostic writings, which helps the discovery of the divine self within. This possible with the high level of consciousness, the resistance against unconsciousness, as Sylvanus encourages us in his “Teachings”: “Wisdom calls you, yet you desire foolishness...a foolish man...goes the ways of desire of every passion. He swims in the desires of life and has foundered...he is like a ship which the wind tosses to and fro, and like a loose horse which has no rider. For this (one) needed the rider, which is reason” (18., 127-128). The absurd reasonlessness is ridiculed by the gnostics. In the “Gospel to the Hebrews” Jesus speak of “my Mother, the Spirit”, and this Spirit is both Mother and Virgin, the consort of Heavenly Father. “The Father of everything united with the virgin came down”: that is the Holy Spirit descending into the world, but this Spirit remains Clean and Virgin due to her heavenly origin. “Christ, therefore, was born from a Virgin (Spirit)”, as it explained by the “Gospel of Philip”. The author ridicules the literal minded Christians, who refer the virgin birth of Mary, as thought she conceived apart from Joseph: “They do not know what they are saying. When did a woman ever conceived by a woman?” Instead, virgin birth refers to the sacral union of the Father of All and the Holy Spirit (18., 53).

Comparing the story of Mark 8:27-29 with the original version: “And Jesus went on with with his disciples to the village of Caesarea Philippi, and on the way he asked his disciples: ‘Who do men say that I am?’ And they told him: ‘John the Baptist, and others say: Elijah, and others one of the prophets’. And he asked them: But who do you say that I am? Peter answered him: ‘You are the Christ’.” Matthew adds to this that Jesus blessed Peter for the accuracy of his recognition as Messiah, declaring immidiately, that the church will be founded upon. But the “Gospel of Thomas” tells the story differently: “Jesus said to the disciples:’Compare me to someone and tell me whom I like’. Simon Peter said to him,’You are like righteous angel.’ Matthew said to him, ‘You are like a wise philosopher’. Thomas said to him,’Master, my mouth is wholly incapable of saying whom you are like.’ Jesus said, ‘I am not your master. Because you have drunk, you have become drunk from the bubbling stream which I have measured out’.” In relation of Mathew and Peter Jesus does not deny his role as Messiah or teacher, but their example is prominent: the methods of New Testament represent an inferior level of understanding. Thomas recognizing he can’t any specific role to Jesus, at that moment transcends the relation of student to master. He becomes himself like the “living Jesus”, who declares in the “Gospel of Thomas”: “Whoever will drink from my mouth will become as I am, and I myself will become that person, and the things that are hidden will be revealed to him.” Gnostic texts depict Jesus answering questions, taking the role of teacher, and spiritual revealer. But here the gnostic model stands close to the psychotherapeutic one. Both acknowledge the need for guidance, but only as provisional measure: the purpose of accepting authority is to learn to outgrow it. When one becomes mature, no longer needs any external authority. Who took place of a disciple before, comes to recognize himself as Jesus’ “TWIN BROTHER”. The purpose is: to discover the resources hidden within understanding the message of “Testimony of Truth” stating, that our own mind “is the father of the truth”. Sivanus regards “your mind” as “the guiding principle”, which helps to understand in meditative silence, that “you” is equal to everyone, and “you” is able to maintain “your” own independence from anyone else’s authority. Such approach means meditative inner journey to find “gnosis” or “enlightenment” using the model of “living Buddha” and “living Jesus”, is diverged from ortodox tradition, which maintain: human destiny depends on “salvation history”. Or else on the history of Israel and the prophets’ prediction of Christ and his actual coming(18., 129-130). According to “Gospel of Philip”, whoever achieves “gnosis” becames “no longer Christian, but a Christ”, just as the purpose of Buddhism to became a Buddha show the sameness. For most gnostics search for inner self-knowledge is the key to understand universal truth. According to the “Book of Thomas the Contender”: “Whoever has not know himself has known nothing, but he who has known himself, achieved knowledge about the depths of all things.” According to gnostics, whoever explores human experience, discovers divine reality, since the God and Heaven are inside of us. Simon Magus said: each human being is a dwelling place, “and in him dwells an infinite power...the root of universe...exist in latent condition” “POTENTIALLY, NOT ACTUALLY” (18., 134-135). This potentiality not unfold itself, since the ortodox dominance:“we are Christians”, but “who (do not know who) Christ is” (18., 103). They not see him who leads souls to enlightenment, with which they forged the meaning of destiny and mission of Jesus. Adapting the model of Roman political and military organization, arguing, that God alone rules everything, realized Ireneaus’demand: “...every church should agree with this (Roman) church, on account of its preeminent authority” (18., 24). The originally free, creative and democratic community of the equal gnostics became divided into “clergy” and “laity”. God reigns in heaven as lord, judge, and king, on earth He delegates bishops to serve as generals commanding the lay-army. But the analysis of Hammadi-discovery is started as we may see in the bibliography 4000 publications (24.,), is suggesting, that the time is here to consider the powerful alternative of gnosticism to the ortodox tradition, as we begin to understand the nature of these questions (18., 151).

But to be more effective in our understanding, is desired to make clear: the Buddhism is the Tibetization, Chinaization, Koreaization, Japanization etc. of an Indian system, and the gnostic Christianity is the trial of Mediterranization of the same cult. But why the Japanization was successful, and why the Mediterranization is failed?

To such understanding we must touch the history of Attila and his Huns



The Christianity of Ireneaus was able to create its own historiographic view based on the visions of prophet Ezekiel (37:1-3), the predictions of the Apocalypse (20:7-8) and partly on Priscus, who met with Huns, but mostly on Jordanes Gothic bishop, who never saw them relying on 1500 years old banalities of that Ammanius Marcellinus, who not seen them personally, but he is the main “eyewitness”. Such perception became the crystallization of that view about history of Holy Inquisition, which is created against“heresy” originally.

Consequently the ideology of fear from the sons of the Scythian Gogh and Magog became well-established. Accordingly, the Huns collect the expectant mothers before war, cook them in kettle. While singing spells, cut out the babies from their moms, choping up the infants to magic water, making magic material. Their weapons plunged in, evoking sorcery, with which the God-fearing believers are enchanced. Such black art show 6000 warriors there, where is only 1, every of them looks as would keep a sword even if there is nothing in their hand. For keeping their ability, they eat infant-flesh, drink expectant Christian mothers’ blood: it give their huge power making their spirit invicible. Their cloth made of animal-skins, but really they dress with thunder-storm, since their witchcraft conquer the cold. The sole flash of their terrible glance overthrow breaking down walls like thunderstorm. They are magician, running faster than wind and storm, their sword is lighting just their eyes do. Everyone controll 2-3 horses, and the whole earth is trembling from glattering, from their lion-howling the whole world is fearing. Before invading the world, an arrow-storm make dark the sky, then they kill all the God-fearing Christians. The supernatural features of these monsters is coming from a saga telling the story of “haliurunae” - as the Gothic witches were called - who engaged in magic with the world of the dead for which they became expelled from the tribe. Then entering union with the evil spirits of the steppes and gave birth to the Huns (25.,19). Other belief tells, that the Huns were produced by cohibition of wolf and sorcerer, so they have dog-head picking up the scent of Christian blood far away like vampires. Thanks to such fables Attila became the French - and partly German - saintmaker, creating elevated legends about the pious deeds of St. Anianus, St. Stephanus, St. Aravatius, St. Martin, St. Servatius, St. Remigius, St. Genovéve, St. Lupus, St. Memorius, St. Nicasius and St. Ursula with 11 000 virgins etc. (25., 69). He destroyed Rome. The best honored saints of Europe became the enemies of Attila, and their cult still alive today overcoloring the memory of the Huns, who were not as bloodthirsty as the Normans were. But there is some error in this process. St. Ursula was with 11 virgins and not with 11 000, and they weren’t killed by Huns. In the tradition St. Nicasius of Reims is the victim of Attila’s bloodthirst, but he was killed by Vandals at 405, just as St. Martin between 398 and 400, when the Huns still wern’t in Gaul, St. Remigius died after 500 when no Huns were in France already (25., 69). Also, not the Hunnic Attila, but the Gothic Totila destroyed Rome a century later. But in medieval France most legends start with the sentence “at the time, when Attila came to Gaul”: without it reliable saint can’t exist. The details are mixed up, because these legends written down almost after a millenia of his death, meanwhile there were other peoples in Gaul as Avars, Hungarians, Saracenes became confused with each others. The legend “La Vie de Sainte Geneivéve de Paris” is written down around 1200, from which we know, that Attila is the king of some “fause gent”. The medieval epic “Song of Roland” speaks about “Hums” and “Hungres” (25., 68). In “Garin le Loheren” of 12th century (26.,) Hungarians are the terrible pagans of Europe, killing St. Lupus, fighting at Chaelon, menacing Paris, but it isn’t turn out which were done by Huns and which by Hungarians, since both of weren’t able to do exactly the same thing. The feudal epic “Garin le Loheren” composed in 12th century, starting with promising a song of great historic value (“de grant estoire”) about the coming of “Hongres”, who treated the Christians badly, destroyed Rheims and placed Paris under siege. They are part of Saracene army as the Huns are, this pack of thieves was lead by Attila (25., 68-70).

Nevertheless by analysis we may discover much European names related to the Huns, due to their start with Hun-, Hon-, Un-, On- beginnings. For example, the meaning of “Unnegiselus” means “Hun+hostage” according to the analysis of Leena Löfstedt, or “somebody fit to be given as hostage to the Huns”. As known, Attila was hostage in Rome in his youth, so he had Roman education: to be Hun-hostage was equal with education and carrier. “Honobertis” was a frequent medieval name meas “Hun+bright”=“illustrious due of the Huns”, now used in France and a name of the royal family of Savoy. “Hunfredus” means “Hun+peace”=“who capable of making peace with Huns”or rather “person enjoy the blessing of peace created by Huns”. In the Old-French it known as “Hunfrei”, brought by the Normans to the other side of Channel, and now is known in America as “Humphrey”, but remained on the Continent as “Hunfroi/Honfroi”. “Hunbaldus” is occur in Gaul as “Hun+bold”, but it became famous in Germany as Humbold (25., 70). Many European names can be traced back to Hun-period, as the “Ungrimmus” or “Unoldus” male, or the “Humberga”, “Humgardis”, “Hunildis” female names, according to Marie-Therése Morlet (27.,). According to the “Ratisches Namenbuch”, the prefix “Hun-“: “wahrscheinlich doch zum Volknamen der Hunnen”, means “probably it is related to the common names of Huns” (28., 3.200). This prefix exist in Frisian, Old-German, Old-Norse and Old-Scandinavian, since it is very ancient. We must remind, contemporary Gaul was bilingual, where the German conquerors remained minority, but they were the aristocracy. Hence the probability, that considerable part the original Gallo-Latin population desiring to appeal more distinguished, used the names of their high-born ones (25., 71-72).

But whether, the Gallo-German aristocracy of ancient Gaul was really German? The question is actual, since according to Löfstedt: Attila created Europe (25., 70). The Hungarian writer Gárdonyi in appendix of his novel about Attila (1902), cite the medieval Hungarian cronicler Kézai: Attila never lost in war, so he not lost the famous Battle of Catalaunum too. Well, how able a loser Attila devastate Italy, the heart of Roman Empire without the resistance of winner Aetius, and who turned back after the entreaty of aged Roman Pope? Altheim state: (“Geschichte der Hunnen” I-V. 1959-62): the alleged Roman victory at Catalaunum is a talking beside the point, since from the text-analysis of Jordanes is obvious, that he made an almost exact copy of the “Battle of Salamis” of Herodotos.

As Ireneaus and followers falsified the tenets of Jesus, Jordanes - who is still “THE RELIABLE” source of Western historiography - was able to continue the process of falsification with easy-flowing elegance. But even the first Gothic Lord’s Prayer of the 4th century is starting with a Hunnish word: “Atta unsar thu in himinam”, means “Our Father in heaven” (29.,17): officially the name Attila is Gothic. Whether why the “atta” (father) is Gothic? Known, that the Ata-türk name of modern Turkey’s founder means “Father-Turk”, known the Central-Asian town Alma Ata means “Alma Father”, the Hungarian “atya”(father) means the same as the Japanese “oto”, and the Tibetan infectional ending “-la” used in confidental situation as a gentle kind of diminutive - the question maybe raised rightfully: why the name of Attila (means beloved “Daddy”)is Germanic and not Altaic? Probably because the ortodox Christianity had horror of Huns, since they gave shelter for the gnostic Christianity coming from the same culture from where the gnosticism came. Consequently the horror of ortodox Christianity from the spiritual victory of the Huns was even bigger than the fear from their military victory, because many centuries after the fall of Huns they created the instuition of HOLY INQUISITION for the radical destruction of the remains of that “heresy”, which still flowered secretly. This Inquisition was able to realize its purpose only after many centuries of activity FIRST OF ALL BY DESTROYING OF ALL POSITIVE MEMORIES OF HUNS. But as turning out, that they became defeated militarily, we can not rule out the possibility, that the German aristocracy of the contemporary Gaul were rather Hun, or at least Germano-Hun.

Since it is backed by too many facts.



According to the Hungarian historian Padányi, the politics, philosophy, literature, fine-art, and music is romantic. The best romantic figures of European history, as Napoleon or Garibaldi are the creation of this period just as Byron, Tolstoy, Tennyson, Dumas, Victor Hugo, Thorwaldsen, Delacroix, Corot, Liszt, Chopin, Verdi and Wagner are the creation of the century. It is valid for science of history too, which is best romantic in its intention to be “scientific” at any price.

The spiritual reaction of European nations (humbled to the dust by Napoleon) burst into this atmosphere with overhelming force and will be a feature of century. It’s the nationalism. Napoleon still on the summit of power in 1808, when the peaceful silence of those auditoriums became disturbed constantly by the drumbeat of French patrols checking the snowy streets of the occupied Berlin, where great things were brewing at that time. Prof. Johann Gottfried Fichte began lectures under the title: “Reden an die Deutsche Nation”, with it the nationalism start its conquest. Within a decade Germany will be enslaved, and within an other one it will owerflow all of Europe. Fichte is followed by Hegel. The “Junge Deutschland” and “Italia Irredenta” came into existence, the people of Paris expel the Bourbons, the Poles lost their independence at Ostrolenka. The youth of Europe is in fever. The works of Fichte, Hegel and Görres became read by the “Burschenschafts” of the German universities with the same enthusiasm, as the pamphlets of Italian universities by the carbonaris of Piemont. The political turbulence effect the field of literature and art, the attention is turning to the glorious past. Nations investigate their “family three” and they “find” triumphant anchestry - even if they not exist. Walter Scott write “Ivanhoe”, France create “Cid” romances. Machperson “discovered” ancient poems written by a Scottish Homeros: Ossian. Europe wondered, than turned out: the “Songs of Ossian” is written by Machperson himself. From sagas and fragments of Hun-epoch the “Nibelungen Lied” became constructed, in which triumphant Walküres ride out on horseback escorted by the magnificant trumphets of Wagner: from the mythical mist of the national heroic age of a tipically pedestrian people.

Europe’s romantic awaraness and flood-like nationalism not care such “not too important” things. But the evolvement of the modern science of historiography just happened in such age, which was the less appropriate for laying down foundations. Just the romanticism and nationalism are phenomenes, why this otherwise very creative century is unsuited for making the objective science and philosophy of history. Namely, the 19th century is full with “scientific” establishments, which proved false in historiography, when the informations were incomplete. That careless work of systematization, which were done thoughlessly in this century of romanticism fueled by optimistic excitement - is need a revision almost in every segment of it.

Let’s see an example from the question of Germanic population of early Europe. The German historiography of 19th century speaking about Old-Germans use frequently the expression ”people” and “tribe” with amazing lightness, and count more than thirty different German peoples, indicating with the plural of “tribe”, that really, they speak about “peoples”. Since in the same book they mention Turanian tribes suggesting, that these Germanic “tribes” and “peoples” are the same quantity as the Turanians are. From the end of the Antique Age, the militarily organized Turanian tribe had 50-60 000 souls, which was able product 10 000 warriors. If the tribe’s fertility owergrow this number, they split into two. If due to catastrophe its number decreased dramatically, dissolved in another tribe, but the number of a tribe was. The Turanian alliance of tribes - or peoples - differ in their size according to tribes’ number. The name“Onogur” means “ten-tribes”, “Beshgur”=”five-tribes”,“Tukurgur”=”nine-tribes”,“Uturgur” “Uturgur” = ”thirthy-tribes”, “Üchogur” =”three-tribes”, “Altigur”=”six-tribes” etc. In a Turanian “tribe” it was at least 50 000 organized humans, and in the case of a Turanian “people” at least the alliance of three tribes was necessary. If we consider seriously the German historians’ more than 30 German “people” must mean at least 100-120 tribes, or 6-7 million souls in the 3-4th c. A.D., which means 1800 million souls now by the avarage pace of medieval growth (duplication is in every six generation or in every two centuries), with effect of wars and plagues. But the German population today count 300 million souls, and in this number is the originally non-German ethnic formation, as the Prussian is. While the Turanian population of the Early Medieval Europe with its Sabirian, Kök-Turk, Avar, Uz, Cumanian, Khazar, Bulgarian, Onogur etc. peoples all together is multiple of that number, which is called “Germanic”. According to historiography, these Turanian peoples died out. But language is changable, and these peoples not died out, only changed their language. They are still exist. If some method would be avaible, with which it would be shown: how percentage is Hun, Sabirian, Avar, Onogur, Cumanian etc. of the peoples called now Ukrainan, Cossack, Russian, Polish, Rumanian, Serbian, Bohemian, Slovakian, Slovenian, Austrian, Bavarian, Thüringian etc., the world would be suprised. A people can leave a territory with a language after the residence there, but the question of their ethnic origin is still open: since the language is changable. The science of language may establish the origin of a language, but not the origin of the people, which speaks that language (30.,).

Since the Indogerman theory is try to find out the origin of European peoples by the means of linguistics, let’s examine it more closely.



The creation of modern linguistics is started in 1816, when the epoch-making essay of F. Bopp: “Über das Konjugationssystem der Sanksritsprache in Vergleichung mit jenem der griechisen, lateinischen, persischen und Germanischen Sprachen” became published, by which the Indogerman theory came into existence. Soon the Celtic and Slavic languages, then Albanian and Armenian became members of the family. From the western end of Europe to the Ganges an almost unbroken chain of peoples became discovered speaking related languages. This recognition left its almost indelble mark on the way of thinking of European linguistics and history, and it appeared as fact: the best ancient civilizations of Eurasia were created by peoples speaking Indogerman languages, and the best archaic written record is Indogerman. Then, the comparative research of different Indogerman languages started with full power (31.,).

The method of research were determined by the elaboration of phonetic law by J. Grimm, and the main objective of research became the reasoning out the basic words of the supposedly common original Indogerman language. A representative of research, Schrader, defined this method:

1.,”The kinship of Indogerman languages can be explained only by the supposition of a common language.

2., The supposition of this original Indogerman language prove inevitably the existence of an original Indogerman people” (Schrader, O.: “Sprachchvergleichung und Urgeschichte”, Jena, 1883, cited by 31.,).

But any kind of supposition is not the evidence of anything, especially not inevitably. Moreover a kinship can not be explained “only” by a common original language, since such kinships can be evolved by other means too (31., 66).

Schrader continued: “The immense spreading of Indo-German languages - contrary of huge interbreeding - is can be explained only by a superior culture”. And this is that point, when this romantic-nationalist “science” start to be something different, which we understand on term of science. This something is going to be similar to the basic tenets of a new religion, or a new kind of confession - by which the enthusiastic Europe is declared its adherence to something new. But this new was a creed similar to Catholic mentality, not allowing space for doubt, as it was done by heretics, but it became necessity to accept as came from God. A “creed”, or a religio-mythological establishment came into existence: the continuity of it (the myth of cultural superiority) is evolved with airy spontainity. With “a priori” supposition of the original Indogerman language of the original people, scientists tried to solve the question of original home too. Rhode placed it near the Pamir (182O), Schlegel between Caspian-See and the mountains of Central Asia, Klapproth (1830) between Himalaya and Caucasus, Pott (184O) to the vicinity of Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, and Momsen consider in his “Römische Geschichte” (1854), that it is Mesopotamia. His opinion is unchanged even in the 7th edition of his work (1881), although the excavations proved already in 1854, that from the 4th millenia B.C. only Semites and some other ancient, but not Indogermans lived in the territory. But at the beginning of 20th c. Moller was brave to state: the Indogerman research arrived to a deadlock (Moller, H.: “Etymologisches Wörtenbuch der indoeuropaishen und semitischen Sprachen”, 1907, cited by 31.,). Or just they speak about original Indogerman people almost a century, while the used methods isolate the Indogerman tones from other language-families, making impossible to consider wider connections. Yet scientists unsatisfied with used methods, established: the Indogerman languages came into existence in relatively late, but before they belonged to a bigger linguistic community, which formed the foundation of other families also (Velden, Fr.: “Über Ursprung und Herkunft der indogermanischen Sprachen und anarische Sprachreste in Europa”, 1912, cited by 31.,). Researchers as Paasonen, Setala, Thomsen and Jacobsen proved: between different Indogerman languages we can’t speak about genetic kinship, only complicated ethnogenetic and linguistic equalization process. Finally Schuchard state it in black-and-white: the introduction of phonetic law was an irresponsible act, leaving the weight of supervision for succeeding generations (Schuchard, H.,: “Die Baskische und die Sprachwissenschaft” 1925, cited by 31.,) and the most authentic researchers of our century turned against the absolutization of the phonetic law theoretically, but everything remained unchanged practically. But Trubetzkoy blew up a scientific bomb at 1939 proving: the mark “Indogerman” is only a linguistic concept relating ONLY to grammatic structure, but NOT to vocabulary, and say nothing about ethnic questions (Trubetzkoy, N. S,: “Gedanken über das Indogermanproblem”, Acta linguistica I., Prag, 1939, cited by 31.,).To start from the presupposition of an origial language is unpardonable methodologically. The probability is quite high, which we call Indogerman became formed by the amalgation of different elements, which is reflected by the comparative ethnology. Hence the Indogerman theory leave open the cultural and anthropological questions. The language itself is changable, stated by Scherer and Pokorny (Scherer, A.: “Das Problem der indogermanischen Urheimat vom Stand- punkt der Sprachwissenschaft”, 1947/195O., Pokorny, J.: “Die indogermanische Spracheinheit”, 1954, cited by 31.,). Solta agree with Trubetzkoy, adding: the research never tried to prove the existence of original Indogerman language and in the deduction of this supposed language they reflected the relation of Latin and Romance languages back to the prehistoric age without any reason (Solta, G.: “Gedanken zum Indogerman-problem”,1952, cited by 31.,). Altheim still add: history shows, homogenous languages were able to develop only on those archaic territories, where organized empires existed. The Roman Empire gave possibility for development of such language, nevertheless we have no knowledge about the empire of Indogermans( Altheim, F.: “Geschichte der lateinischen Sprache”, 1951, cited by 31.,). According to the new research: Indo-German vocabulary is exist not only in Finno-Ugric or Ural-Altaic (Turanian), but in the Hamito-Semitic languages too. According to Nehring, probable we can speak about the amalgam of an Ural-Altaic and Caucasian language resulting the evolution of the Indogerman one, which occured around the turn of the 3rd and 2nd millenia B.C. near to Caspian See, but due to the Semitic-Indogerman parallels, we can’t speak about direct connections, so we must investigate in a third, unknown language after that source, which is binding the Indogerman languages with the Semitic ones. But only by a way, which not exclude the Finnougric-Indogermanic correspondences in advance, without examination, because it may turn out, that the parallels originated from the same unknown language (p.403., Nehring, A.: “Die Problematic der Indogermanenforschung”,1954, in Scherer, A.: “Die Urheimat der Indogermanen, Wissenschafttliche Buchgesellschaft”, Darmstadt, 1968, cited by 31.,).

With this statement we arrived to the authentic trend of the modern research.


I., Searching for an empire

According to Altheim, homogenous languages can evolve out only on big organized territory, as the Roman Empire was. According to Nehring, an unknown language had substantial effect of the formation process of Indogerman language. Whether, Altheim and Nehring not speak about the same problem?

Let’s see the question more closely! An empire-like formation existed in Fertile Crescent in the earliest times. The English Colonel Henry C. Rawlinson (1810-1895) discovered the Sumerian writing in 1835. In a letter he sent to the Royal Asiatic Society, and were read at the meeting of Febr.5, 1853 about the finding of large number of Scythian inscriptions, which are more ancient than the dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar. This Scythism gave the first civilization of area and there are abudant confirmation of the Scythian empire of Nimrud in the Talmud (32.,228). In one of his books (8.,) we can find traces of Scythic dominion of Asia, at the dawn of history. This Scythic-Sumerian is close to the Mongolian and Manchurian (33.,1438). Dr.Edward Hincks (1792-1866) suggested in 1857, that all Turanian languages are descendant of the Sumerian (34.,134-143), and the original Turanian inhabitants of Babylonia spoke an agglutinated tone (“Babylon and its Priest-Kings”, The Journal of Sacred literature”, 8, 296-309). The Sumerian is Scythic or Turanian (“Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 23, Part II” 31) and Semitic Assiro-Babylonians came after Turano-Babylonians, adopted the system of writing of the old (Scythic) Babylonians (“The Atlantis” 1863/4, 57-112). Norris established, we found the language of Scythia (35.,1-52). The German-born French Jules Oppert (1825-1905) was prof. of Sanksrit, Assyrian linguistics and archeology of College de France. He founded the “Revue d’Assyrologie”. His activity included Assyrology, Biblical history and the research on Semitic, Old-Persian, Sanksrit, and Turanian languages, finding: the writing-inventor people is Scythic. He proved, the discovery of Assyro-Scythic documents is the evidence of an ancient civilization created by a member of Central Asian peoples (36.,177-228). In his three-volume work give an account of his Mesopotamian expedition proving the Turanian caracteristicals of the cuneiform writing comparing modern Altai languages with Mesopotamian (37., 82-85).

A new chapter is started by Sayce (1833-1933), with the unparalleled decoding of a Sumerian text(38.,1-50). As professor of Assyrology of Oxford University compared of Sumerian to members of Turanian group, stating, that they belongs together. In his study of Sumerian numerals established high degree of similarity with the numerals of Altaic peoples (39., 696-702). Studying Sumerian phonetics, established, that the law of sound-harmony is valid in the same way at most Altaic languages. He stressed, inevitable the initation of Altaic languages into Sumerian-research, since it is the first culture-bearing language of the mankind (40.,123-142), and the Sumerian can regarded as Sanksrit of Turanian languages(41., 466), establishing:”...Babylonian culture owed its origin to a race whose type of language was that of the Finn, of the Magyar or the Japanese”(42.,279).

But the best important researcher of Sumerian-Turanian connections is the French Francois Lenormant (1837-1883). He was 33 years old, when he became the professor of archeology of Bibliotéque Nationale, and 34, when he found the “Gazette Archéologique”. Only 26 years old, when the first volume of his famous “Études Accadiennes” is published resulting his appointment as professor, while in 1879 he bacame the founder of Sumerian linguistics by pointing out the parallels with the Turanian languages (43.,). His other work is entitled “La magie chez les Chaldéens” was a sensation of scientific life, in which he pointed out, the Sumerians and Turanians has the same religious base. In this large-scale analysis Lenormant compared Sumerian with the Finnish, Estonian, Cheremis, Turko-Tartaric, Hungarian, Buryatic, Mongolian, Manjoo, Tungusic, Korean and Japanese languages. He stated: “The Sumerian language is exist, this existence is undeniable” (44.,), since J. Halévy maintaining that the Sumerian never existed, but it was the secret language of the Semite priests of Babylonia. For the acceptance of his views he wrote an article in “Journal Asiatique”(1874)entitled “Can we allow the presence of a Turanian people in the soil of Babylon?”, not without results, since he lived 91 years fighting fiercely for his alleged truth untill his late death, while Lenormant (the only scientist able to refutate Halévy’s theory) died early, living only 46 years. Halévy not became disturbed by the fact, that archeological excavations of Lagash of 1877 and 1900 resulted not only the famous Gudea-statues, but 40.000 clay-tablets, and at Nippur-excavations 30.000 tablets became found proving the undeniable existence of Sumerian civilization. Meanwhile Lenormant published an other work of great importance, which received the widest recognition in English and German academic circles, in which he defended the thesis of the Sumerian-Turanian linguistic relation against Halévy’s crusade (45.,). Although the researchers of Sumerian-Turanian kinship became minority due to this campaign, nevertheless they still active. Significant representative of it after W. W. 1st is the German-born Pater Deimel, who created his famous Sumerian dictionary (46.,), meanwhile the significant Sumerian grammar of Prof. Jestin (47.,). Prof. Labat of Sorbonne also continued the work of Lenormant, where his assistant-professor Gostony published a known book (48.,).Prof. Woolley contributed to a UNESCO-publication establishing that the Sumerian is an agglutinative language belonging the same group, as the Turkish, Finnish or Hungarian (49.,). As the result of several leading experts of the field, the contemporary science established: the Sumerian culture is the source of both Greco-Roman and Hebrew traditions (14.,).

In the form of Sumerian Empire composed by the loose federation of town-states, we was able to find that Roman-Empire-like formation, which - according to Altheim - was able to create homogenous language, as the Latin is.


II., The effects of this empire

Unfortunate fact of Europocentric historiography, that belittle the importance of Sumerians suggesting, that they dissolved in the coming flood of Semites. Nevertheless the appearance of Hitler, Trubetzkoy and the archeological excavations at end of 19th century shocked the foundations of the classic Indogermanism, a desired new concept not created, though more than 10.000 linguistic records became avaible, which are 2000 years older, than the oldest Indogerman written findings. As the late effect of Halévy, is accepted, that Sumerian is an isolated language. But it is unimaginable, that the first culture-bearing language of our Earth would be isolated, since it dominated the culture and economy of Western-Asia directly for more than 1500 years, and indirectly for an other 1500 years as sacral language just in the same way, as the Latin of Europe. If the Latin had important direct effects for 200 years, why not happened it with the almost 2000 years long direct effect of Sumerian? The number of Sumerians was not insignificant in the time of 2000 B.C., as it is suggested by most publications. Between 4000 and 2000 B.C. was Sumer that big power of significant effect, which gave the writing, the law, religion, wheel, tower, the astronomy and astrology, the system of irrigation, the town and many other things to mankind. Such significant creations suppose significant number of qualified population. If we count the number of incomer Sumerians rougly only as 20.000 at time of their immigration, their number in 2000 B.C. was at least 5 million: countng with the duplication in every 200 years, using for model the almost same pace of medieval European population-growth. Such quantity not vanished withouth trace. Let’s calculate with such number, because the archeological findings in Uruk from 3400-3300 B.C. show such monumental buildings, which impossible to build in such high level by some thousand people only, while cultivating the land and maintaining the irrigation-system. Also proved by archeology, that it was necessary to rebuild most of the temples, palaces and houses in every 40-50 years, because the bricks dryed by the sun became crumbled into dust after a while. Also, the huge water-quantity of rivers great as the Danube, Ganges or Missisipi are - since the Tigris and Euphrates is enough big to compare to these great streams - desires very high number of population only for the control of these rivers (31.,).

This territory is that Fertile Crescent, where the Neolithic Revolution happened first, which had wider consequences in the process of language-evolvement, necessary for the evolvement of the civilization itself. The area established the first agricultural centers around the 9th millenia B.C., which developed into united agricultural area in the 7th millenia B.C. According to the archeologic findings, in the turn of 7-6th millenia great emigrations started to other territories, which made possible the realization of this “Neolithic Revolution” in parts of Iran, Anatolia, Balkan up to the Carpathian basin for the 5th millenia. But what was the final cause of these emigrations started at beginning of 6th century, then followed by wave-like recurrences time to time bringing Fertile-Crescent-type agriculture to remote land of Eurasia? For beginning of 6th millenia the already two thousand years old agriculture made eruptive growth of the population by forcing to find new territories of living. A geographical sq. mile (7420 x 7420 sq. ms) territory is necessary for the living of a 4-5 members’ family of hunting-fishing-collecting way of life. It’s almost 55 sq. kms, which respond to density of 0,07-0,09 souls/sq. kms. Ethnographic examinations done aboriginals’ regions still continuing hunting-fishing-collecting way of life proved, that a relentless law demand to keep the population low, because the stock of wild animals, fishes, eatable plants, berries and fruits of a given territory is not enough living of too much people. The population-density of hunting-fishing will remain constant, since the extra growth is forced to find new hunting territories (50., 38-39 ). The population of Hungary not would be 10 million, as it is today, but 6500-8400, from which is obvious: why we can not speak about the formation of common “primitive language of linguistic families” and ethnically united population, or homogenization of bigger territories in case of hunting-fishing way of life, which is supposed erroneously in the formation of Indogerman family. Anyone may imagine: homognization can’t happen in situation, when 300-400 persons wandering in a county-size territory, uniting into 8-10 hordes of 30-40 souls of each, waging desperate wars with each-other for the possession of a hunting territory (31., 816). But let’s see what happen, if the agricultural way of life is starting, as it happened in the Fertile Crescent c. 10.000 years ago. The same territory with agriculture is able to support at least hundred times density, which can be rised from 0,07-0,09/sq. kms to 7-9/sq. Kms, and the territory of Hungary in case of neolithic agriculture would support 650-840.000 souls. Such density can create condition for stable connections, permanent relations and formation of an understandable language, a “lingua franca“ used uniformly at contacts. But if density arrived to the critical 7-9/sq. kms, it may led to famines, since this agriculture isn’t able to sustain more people. The only way-out from this situation is the emigration to new territories, where the natural rainfall able to ensure the necessary crops. And the archeological findings can prove, that first migrations directed exclusively to territories enough rich in rainfalls (31.,817). Now let’s try to calculate how long time was necessary for the population of a given neolithic territory to be dense hundred times due to the agriculture. Medieval Europe’s duplication happened in every 200 years, but in the neolithic West-Asia let’s count with a moderate pace of 250-300 years. But if we project this result to the archeological datas of the Fertile Crescent, we find exact correspondences. The agriculture is started there at the turn of 10-9th millenia in isolated centres and conquested bigger territories around the 8th millenia from Western-Anatolia to Nothern-Syria and Nothern-Mesopotamia to the Zagros mountains. If (according to the archeological findings) we point out the date of the evolution of the primal neolithic zone around 7900-7800 B.C., then the population of this huge territory would reach the critical density of 7-9/sq. kms c. 6200-5800 B.C. Examining archeology, we see the start of population-expansion around the turn of 7-6th millenias B.C., when the Neolithic Revolution’s demographic detonation brought immigrants to Greece, Crete, Cyprus, to the Trans-Caucasus, to Italy, Dalmatia, Sicily, and South-France. Not much later the dry South-Mesopotamia will be agricultural area for 5400 B.C. due to the evolvement of irrigation-system. Around 5000 Balkan, the southern part of Carpathian-basin and Southern-Turkestan will be occupied. From this time we can see new demographic waves in every 4-500 years reaching the almost virgin territories of both Europe and Asia more and more deeply. These migrations are well followed by the archeological findings and well-elaborated by scientists, as Altheim, Amiet, Awdijew, Belenickij, Bittel, Bossert, Burney, Childe, Christian, Ebert, Edzard, Falkenstein, Friedrich, Geotze, Ghirshman, Grjasnow, Hancar, Heine-Geldern, Haussig, Hrozny, Hrouda, Hout, Jettmar, Kramer, Kraus, Kussmaul, László, Lloyd, Margueron, Markwart, Mellink, Moortgat, Moscati, Nack, Nagel, Oberhuber, Oppenheim, Orthmann, Padányi, Parrot, Perrot, Pittoini, Porada, Randa, Saggs, Schachermeyr, Schmökel, Soden, Strommenger, Tolstow, Thureau-Dangin, Ungnad, Wooley etc. They helped to form the creative concept of a pioneering Hungarian scientist, László Götz, who died in 1992. But with evaluation of 600 basic books on the topic writing an epoch-making work of 1200 pages pointing out: how our present world-culture came into existence (31.,). Thanks to him, now we understand the process of birth of the ancient Eurasian unity between Mesopotamia, the Yellow River and the Carpathian-basin due to these migrations. According to Heine-Geldern, the effect of them was similar to the process, when the Russians colonizing Siberia arrived to the Japanese sea, or the European colonizations of last centuries. But it happened in the form as we may experience in case of Australia, where most of the population of colonized territories came from the mother-country. In territories, where the population mixed with the aboriginals (e.g. South-America after Colombus), the newcomers had more developed culture and the difference was more striking as it was in case of European colonizators, who went to areas, where they found agriculture. The Fertile Crescent’s population migrated to territories, where they found hunting-fishing hordes, and the migrant-density was hundredfold. In some closed regions the original languages remained, but mostly they used the language of “Fertile Crescent”, or variations of it, but also PIDGIN-like mixed language based on Sumerian were used from the Carpathian basin to the Yellow river. The linguistic phenomene of pidginization is well-known in the European colonies, when the mixture of European and aboriginal languages created special local variations. The ethnic intermixture across Eurasia was able to create similar formations, but in which the Sumerian remained DOMINANT (31.,).

The infiltration of Semitic Accadians into Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 3rd millenia became so strong around 2450 B.C., that they grasped political power (Sargon-dynasty). We have written records speaking about serial rebellions of subjugated Sumerian town-states, the blood-bath, massacres, the destruction of rebellious towns, the expel of rebellious citizens. Every single accession to the throne resulted general rebellions and every new Accadian ruler had to conquer the empire of his predessor. In this time a more intensive migration is started to territories, where kin-cultures became well-established by former waves, in which process the “Lapis Lazuri Road” had extraordinary importance. The Sumerians had the monopoly of trade of this holy blue stone of archaic West-Asia. This stone was very popular in Mesopotamia and Egyipt, and it was imported from Afganistan, where it was mined. The “Lapis Lazuri Road” of ancient Asia was at least so important as the “Silk Road” was millenias later. Due to this road the best known place for Sumerians outside of Mesopotamia became Afghanistan, and the Turanian Plain between the Caspian See and Pamir. Although the Accadian rule of Sumer ended and the New Sumerian Empire established, but it was the swan-song of Old-Scythian period of Mesopotamia. The Semites continued their unceasing infiltration into Mesopotamia, and the independent Sumerian statehood became fallen finally at 2120 B.C. The mourning-song of the last king of the Dynasty of Ur, Ibbisin, is obvious evidence of more intensive migration, while we can be eyewitness of the consolidation of Scythian civilization spreading from the Carpathian-basin to the Yellow River with its center on the Turanian Plain. Consequently in Turkestan - formerly called as Turan - came into existence that ethnic-linguistic formation, which became defined by the late Prof. Max Müller of Oxford as Turanian, but which is called now as Altaic, maybe not enough rightfully.

Namely this little name-change is suggesting, that this people has nothing common with the high civilization of Tur(kest)an, only to the mostly nomadic way of life of the Altai-area, and the significant culture-product of area is Indogerman creation. This science, which was able to create a Hitler, still a determinant factor even today thanks to authors, who still marching Indogerman war-charts in Western-Asia even in 1949, filling up Central-Asia with Indogerman warriors (Meyer, E.: “Die Indogerman-flage”, 1949, cited by 31.,). In 1954 Wahle still speaks about “warcharioting worldview” (Streit-wagengesirung) of Indogerman “chariotknight” (Streitwagenritter)(Wahle, E.: ”Die Indogermanisierung Mitteleuropas”, 1954, cited by 31.,), although neither the domestication of horse and the usage of war-chariot, nor the horseriding were known by ancient Indogermans (Hancar, F.: Das Pferd in prahistorischer und früher historischer Zeit”, 1956, cited by 31.,). Contrary of it a group of scientists made the Indogermanization of the Ainus of Japan relatively recently (Reallexikon der Assyrologie und vorderasiatischen Archeologie, Band V. 1/2. Lieferung 1976, cited by 31.,). Of course, Central Asia is also Indogerman or Indoiranian, although the first records of the Old-Iranian language are coming from the stone inscription of Behistun of 520 B.C. (31., 553).


III., The Grimm-blunders and consequences

Obvious, that Europe of romantic 19th century was the unquestionable master of the world, and there was an unspoken desire in the air to make a science, which can “ideologize” of this state, as the Grimm-brothers made it in the form of “science of phonetic laws”.

Untill the 20’s of this century no linguist dared to question the importance of regular phonetic changes in the development of languages, and noone imagined better method for the investigation for the kinship of the languages, concluding, that the phonetic change belongs to the innermost substance of a language similarly to the formulas and laws of the matematics, physics or chemistry. But not easy to understand, why stated, that only that lingustics is scientific, which stand on the phonetic law of Grimm. Namely Grimm’s law of regular phonetic change became not only law, but a creed. These “laws” never became tested by the methodical terms of modern science. Even noone tried to puzzle out the final causes of the phonetic changes, or explain them logically. Simply, they became accepted.( Solta, G.: “Gedanken zum Indogermanenproblem”, 1952, Schuchardt, H.: “Das Baskische und die Sprachwissenschaft”, 1925, cited by 31.,). Noone rised the basic and obvious theoritical question, whether, what kind of irresistible occult power is able to force the languages for the pushing through of the schematic Grimm’s law (astonishingly looks like the jig-saw puzzle of the little kids) from Ireland to India since millenias? Actually, what the language is? Is it the “Ding an sich” of Kant ? Is it for itself and for its own sake being selfcontained and independent from people? Or is it a phonetic system created by the people consciously, which make the communication between people more easier? Since it’s the recent one, it haven’t “laws” independent from our consciousness especially not such “occult” kind of law, as the Grimm’s law manifest itself. To suppose the existence of it may mean to suppose, that a just started musical composition will became independent from the composer and itself will write ownself. These simple logical considerations question, that the phonetic changes of Grimm constitute a kind of universally valid linguistic law. Nevertheless there is a definitely comic aspect of this “law”, which also rise many questions. The so called “2nd sound-postponement” had primal importance in Grimm-law, which allegedly happened in Upper-German. But this language is the possible best unsuitable for establishment of such “law”, since they weren’t able to make difference between B-P, D-T, and G-K at all. Anyone can be convinced about the uncertainity of Upper-Germans, since in linguistic records the BALG and PALG (leather), DRIGIL and TRIGIL (messenger) or the GRIOZ and KRIOZ (grits) are alternating with each other without any kind of limit. This situation was valid in the Upper-German oficially untill the 19th century, since the noted Danish linguist, O. Jespersen mention in his book (Phonetik, 1897-99), that name-list in the offices of Southern-Germany, where was common column for name started with B or P, and D or T. Nowadays such situation is unimaginable due to the central uniformization of the orthography, nevertheless in the everyday life we may find almost the same. For example, if we dictate the “Pichler” for someone, will be asked very quickly: “It must write with hard or soft P ?” Such thing is unimaginable for the native Hungarian speakers for example, because they can understand, whether someone is spelling out B or P? But the problem in Upper-German is not only the negligent and obscure articulation, but simply: they haven’t ear for registration of difference between voiced and voiceless sounds. We can say a B very voiced, but they will ask surely: is it hard or soft? The situation with D and T is exactly the same, it is similar with the G and K, although it’s not so striking, though a child learn in the school: B is the “waiches P” and the P is the “hartes P”, and so on, but in everyday life they not able to percept their differences. Nevertheless the Grimm-laws based on the changes of these sounds: since the very base of them are the changes of B to P then to PH, the changes of D to T then to TH, the changes of G to K then to H, according to the results of the research of German dialects. German scientists(Grimm, Kuhn etc.) elaborated them and they served as explanation of sound-qualities of Upper-German primarily, then of German secondarily. These “laws” became created by such persons, who based their “laws” on those sounds, which they weren’t able to distinguish from each other. Moreover their starting points were those linguistic records, which were written down by those forefathers of these scientists, who were blessed with the same unmusical tone-deafness, writing down their words at random. Unfortunately the blunders not became followed by the substantial revision of “phonetic law”, or to find out the real role of them in the linguistic development. Instead different aid- and suplementary-rules, “exception-laws” came into existence as the Werner-law is. For example the term of “soundincrease” (Lautsteigerung) created, which means, that “the warriorlike, brave spirit of the young, powerful German peoples” produced sound-formations, which are different from the Grimm-law. Also percepted it as the manifestation of “energy”, “youngish imprudence” and “overflowing selfconfidence” in the irregular sounds. It must be clear: these expressions became destined to be scientific evidences. The importance of Grimm’s law often compared to the importance of America’s discovery or the invention of gun-powder (31.,105-156), though in most cases there is nothing scientific in it. Especially, when it turned out, that the Indogerman linguistic is related only for some aspects of the grammar, but not for vocabulary. But just the application of Grimm-law not allow to percept the real connections, since several obvious semantic relations of closely connected word-groups became cut up for the sake of these “laws”. From the way-out of this “scientific” deadlock we must find out new methods, as the combined semantic-phonetic method of Götz, with which remarkable Sumerian-Hebrew, Sumerian-Greek, Sumerian-Latin, as well as Sumerian-Indogerman-Semitic parallels can be pointed out (31., 158-168). It may suggest that basic linguistic effect, which influnced the formation of these languages. Consequently we may state:

  1. The Indogerman languages are not isolated, but stand close to other Eurasian languages.
  2. Significant part of Eurasian languages are branches of the linguistic community of Neolithic Western Asia or that primal language, which created of this community, or rather, they are the pidginization of this language.
  3. The vocabulary of this primal language still exist in Eurasian languages.
  4. The ancient connections can be uncovered by the help of Sumerian liguistic records:
      1. because it was the best important dialect of this primal West-Asian language, dominating the area directly more, than 1500 years, and
      2. according to the linguistic records, it almost remained unchanged while flowering for millenias, which the evidence of its matured and timeless antiquity.
  5. The “Indogermanization” of part of these pidginized languages is the result of a relatively late process at the turn of 3-2nd millenias B.C. Nevertheless this isolation not happened so much in vocabulary, rather in caracteristic structure of the grammar primarily.
  6. The modern linguistics examine the phonetic changes only, while the far more important semantic changes became pushed into the background, but without them the revealing of the real connections is impossible (31., 203-204).

Since the Hungarians were called as Scythians by many medieval sources, and the Sumerians were called as Scythians by Rawlinson, it is desired to cite two article (Vol.10.,No.4., Oct.1969 and Vol.12., No.2., Apr.1972)of Dr. András Zakar Hungarian expert of Sumerology published in the “Current Anthropology” of Chicago. By the usage of the Swadesh-Heymes’ word-list of 100 root-words pointing out: from 100 Sumerian words 55 remained in modern Hungarian, which is the evidence, that this language is originated from the Sumerian. The method based on the evaluation-system using the logarithmic formula of glottochronology, which means, that the proportion of identity of Hungarian with Sumerian one is 63% today, but at Götz it’s 83,6% (31., 513-522). The classics of Sumerology suggest the same, though there is no trace of it in official linguistics, where we see the spasmodic state of linguistic digestive system, hence we may call it Finno-Ugrian stoppage. There is kinship between Hungarian and Finno-Ugrian languages, but it is not equal with origin, and since the Hungarians give the 2/3 majority of this people, the exact naming would be Hungarian-Finn: Hungarians count 15 million souls, while the 8 million Ugrians divided into 50 different dialects of 16 languages, understand each other with Russian dictionary (31.,402). Untill the 19th c. Hungarians were the descendants of Scythians officially, but August Trefort, the Belgian-born culture-minister of the Habsburg-colonized Hungary defined the official demand in 1877:”...we need not Asian, but European kinship. The government will aid only those ones, who stand up for the theory of Finno-Ugrian origin...” Unfortunately Hungary still Habsburg-colony spiritually, although the Indogerman caracteristicals of Central-Asia is doubtful, since the “Iranian” feature of “Eastern Iranian” dialects (Choresmian, Bactrian, Sogdian, Khotanian etc.) are going to questionable (Jettmar-Haussig-Spuler-Petech: Geschichte Mittelasiens /Handbuch der Orientalistik/, 1966, cited by 31.,). Even Henning and Altheim (who hasn’t doubt about the Iranian type of these tones) concluded: the Sogdian, Choresmian and other so called “North-Eastern-Iranian” dialects are standing so distant from the really Iranian language, that their kinship can be proved only in the “in the misty archaic times” (”im grauen Altertum” Henning, W.B.: Mitteliranisch /Handbuch der Orientalistic 4./, 1958, p.109 and 113, and Altheim, F.: Geschichte der Hunnen I., 1959, p.427, cited by 31.,). If we consider, that the oldest Persian linguistic record is coming only from the first part of 6th century B.C. compared to the 4-5000 years old Sumerian tablets, then the real origin of Iranian itself is highly questionable, since the Iranologists not able to understand the oldest Gathas of Zend Avesta even today. According to Altheim, the Old-Iranian language of the Zend Avesta is interwaved with Old-Turkish in an inextricable degree (Altheim-Stiehl: Geschichte Mittelasiens im Altertum, 1970, cited by 31.,). Consequently the question is rightful: whether, is there enough scientific evidence of that “Iranian” caracteristical of Scythians, Sarmathians, Parthians etc., deducted from Avestan names? The condition, which force the rise of such question at all is evidence of the real state of Iranology (31., 568). Since the most questions are still open: the only thing is sure, that a people called “Parsua” by Assyrians appeared in West-Iran in 9th century B.C., established the Persian Empire centuries later, then left their first written records in the 6th century. Beyond this everything is uncertain hypothesis about their antiquity, primal language, origin, since the Iranologists are only try to throw out their feelers in profound darkness. The appearance of their great self-confidence is coming from the fact, that big historiographic summaries handle open question questions as settled fact, but which is based on the highly questionable Pan-Indogerman (Pan-Indoiranian) concept, since the Old-Iranian language itself is full with Sumerian root-words (31., 572). The only sure thing with Turkestan and Eastiran is the existence of an archaic continuous culture from the Neolithicum, which maintained constant connections with the contemporary West-Asian civilizations. Anau, Merv and Choresm show the continuity and the only sure thing with the population of Bactria and Sogdia, that their costums and way of life was like of Huns and Turks(Eberhard, W.: Die Kultur der alten zentral- und westasiatischen Völker nach chineischen Quellen /Zeitschr. f. Ethnologie/, 1-3, 1941, cited by 31.,). On the other hand Hüssig accuse the Indogerman-concept with falsification of historography, stating, it brave to speak of pure Aryan population of Iran of the Old-Persian period, although it was very mixed. Before the Aryan migration Iran had a cultured, dense and non-Indogerman population (Hüsing, G.: Die Urbenvölkerung Irans /Keleti Szemle/, Budapest, 1901)and according to Altheim, the town-civilization of Bactria, Sogdia etc. is not Indogerman (Altheim, F.: Weltgesichte Asiens im griechischen Zeitalter I-II, 1947-48, cited by 31.,).

The primal evidences of the “Iranian” caracter of Central Asia were those Europid skulls, which became found there, and to which we will return later on.



Probably we arrived to a conclusion understanding, why more appropriate to use the Turanian ephitet instead of the Altaic one. This “Turanian” mark of Prof. Max Müller indicate that people, which created the highly developed civilization of the Turanian Plain.

This civilization built up step by step over the millenias, then it became an independent center around 2000 B.C., when the influx of Old-Scythian (Sumerian) refugees became intensive on the “Lapis Lazuri Road” after the fall of Sumerian Empire. The new challenge to the created new conditions for a new type of evolvement by the displacement of their civilization from Mesopotamia to Central Asia. This (Central Asia, Turkestan, or rather) Turan became a new radiant center of the fertile (creative)ideals of that type of culture, which the “Fertile Crescent” means. In its first phase spread between the Caucasus and Pamir Mountains, in its second phase spread to the Yellow River and Altai-area with its center in the Tarim Basin. By this phase with the appearance of East-Asian (Mongoloid) race as the preserver and further developer of the life-maintaining precepts of “Fertile Crescent”- ideology, has extraordinary importance. With it a spiritual synthesis of Scythoid and Mongoloid features, the possibility of a more intensiver type of East- and Central-Asian development became created.

By the synthesis of qualities, the Hunnish mentality came into existence.


I., At the nothern end of the “Lapis Lazuri Road”

The Mesopotamian Hassuna-culture is appeared at 5000 B.C. in 1st period of Iranian Tepe Sialk, then in Turkestan(Mondjukl-period) with agriculture, villages and ceramics. Soon the ceramic of Samarra and Tell Halaf appeared in Western-Iran (Sialk-III), Nothern-Iran (Hissar-I), Turkestan (Namazga-I) and Afganistan (Mundigak-I). The geometric patterns found on ceramics of 5th layer of Tepe Sialk-III (first part of the 4th millenia) “almost confused with contemporary Ubadian” (Huot, J. L.: “Persien I.”, /Archeologia mundi/, 1965, p. 107, cited by 31.,). But female female figures made of clay from Namazga-I period of Turkestan (3800-3500 B.C.) “have surprising similarities with the contemporary Ubadian ones” (Dales, G. F.: “Turkestan”, /Propylaen Kunstgeschichte/, vol. XIII. 1974, p. 168, cited by 31.,). These cultures resulted by mass-immigrations from Mesopotamia to Turkestan via Western and Nothern-Persia (Jettmar, K. et alii.: “Geschichte Mittelasiens” /Handbuch der Orientalistik/, Leiden, 1966., Tolstow, S. P.: “Auf den Spuren der altchoresmischen Kultur”, 1953., cited by 31.,). The potter’s wheel is present in the 4th layer of Tepe Sialk-III (3500 B.C.)and the earliest use of it can proved in late Ubaid and early Uruk period of Mesopotamia between 3800-3700 B.C. We can see a parallel development in Turkestan, where the usage of the seals is starting in the period of Namazga-II (3500-3000 B.C.), when the copper is known. These influences can be followed uniformly via Afganistan to Belujistan, and in the whole territory we may find mass of female clay figures, with highly refined aesthetic qualities. At the end of 4th millenia B.C. we can percept newer Mesopotamian influences in Sialk, when the Uruk-ceramics, Sumerian pictographic tablets in the company of Mesopotamian seals appeared. In the West-Iranian Godin-Tepe we can find typical Uruk-ceramics in this time, which was brought by the population arriving from Mesopotamia (Amiet, P.: “Die Kunst des Alten Orients”, 1977, cited by 31.,).

The Sumerian town-states became consolidated for this period and not only spread their cultural influences to the territory of Western-Iran, but sent groups of settlers too. These Sumerian influences arrived to Turkestan soon, but they can be followed via Afganistan and Belujistan to the Indus too, in which territories we can see the beginning of the urbanization between 3000-2500 B.C. (in Turkestan it is the Namazga-III period). Citadells and town-like settlements came into existence as the Altin Tepe in Turkestan and Mundigak in Afganistan. Most researcher explain the cause of these fast Sumerian influences spanning over several thousand of kilometres with the formation of “Lapis Lazuri Road”. It was very important not only the appropriate organization of the import, but to make secure the conditions of mining in remote Afganistan. Still we do not know how was answered this challenge by Sumerians, but the “lapis lazuri” flooded to “Fertile Crescent”, since they organized both the mining and transportation in a pretty high level. The probability is very high, that the quick formation of town-like settlements along “Lapis Lazuri Road” (Sialk-IV, Hissar-II, Turang-Tepe of Iran, Namazga-III, Altin-Tepe of Turkestan, Mundigak of Afganistan) is in close connection with it. Also, there is obvious anthropological evidence of the huge emigration around 3000 B.C. to Nothern-Iran and Turkestan from Mesopotamia. Between 3000 and 2000 there are constant connections between Mesopotamia and Turkestan, the emigration from Mesopotamia to Turkestan is also constant in the whole 3rd millenia (Jetmar, K., and alii: “Geschichte Mittelasiens” /Handbuch der Orientalistik/, Leiden, 1966., Tolstow, S. P.: “Auf den Spuren der altchoresmischen Kultur”,1953, cited by 31.,). This development is unbroken in the Namazga-IV period of Turkestan (2500-2000 B.C.) Turang-Tepe, Namazga-Tepe and Altin-Tepe grew into really big cities. The potter’s wheel is in generally used in this period. The bronze is also known. Mundigak-IV of Afganistan is a town with encircling wall, with monumental palace and temple. According to the digging Soviet scientists, Altin-Tepe was enclosed by wall. In the town a 8-10 meters high Sumerian-type zikkurat was built on 27,5 m X 10,5 m basement, and became enlarged later. In its final form the length of its facade was 55 meters and the highness was at least 12 meters. A more monumental stepped tower were found recently in Turang-Tepe at the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea. These zikkurats are the undoubted evidences of the spreading of the Sumerian hegemony to Turkestan in the 3rd millenia B.C.(Amiet, P.: “Die Kunst des Alten Orients”, 1977, cited by 31.,).

At the end of 3rd millenia B.C. this kind of development stopped, and the towns of West-Turkestan became depopulated. This happened with Mundigak too. Most researcher not find satisfactional answer for this phenomene and most of them explain it with ecologic changes. But we may get the answer with further examination of the connected territories of Central Asia. At the beginning of the 3rd millenia the population of West-Turkestan jumped up significantly due to second huge wave from Mesopotamia and itself became compelled to send groups of settlers for new territories. In this period serie of agricultural settlements appeared along Aral and Amu-Darya up to Ferghana with ceramics strikingly similar to the Turkestanian one (Dales, G. F.: “Turkestan”, in: Jettmar, K., Haussig, H. W., Spuler, B., Pettech, L.: “Geschichte Mittelasiens”, /Handbuch der Orientalistik I. Abteilung, III. Band,5. Abschnitt,/ Leiden, 1966. cited by 31.,). The originally Mesopotamian colored ceramics is progressing from westward direction, and it is followable to the Chinese Neolithic Yang-Shao culture. The wheat and horned cattle appeared in China in this time from westward direction. The archeological findings are the evidence of emigration from West along the southern border of Turkestan, which led to China with parallel of the range of Tienshan. The population started to migrate from Western-Asian agricultural areas around the middle of 3rd millenia B.C. The Western-Asian parallels of Yang-Shao culture are evidence of early migration, as the “holy” horned cattle, gods related to the earth (Chtnonic deities), ritual masks, identity of fertility rituals, the accordances of moon-veneration, holidays and astrologic-astronomic knowledge, the same forms of ox-carts and axes, the appearance of the bronze. The parallels point to the Ubaid-period of Mesopotamia as final source (Kussmaul, F.: “Frühe Nomadenkulturen in Innerasien” /Tribus p.305-360/,1952-53, Childe, G.: “Stufen der Kultur”, 1952, cited by 31.,).

In north-eastern direction, in the vicinity of Minusinsk and area of Altai-Sayan mountains and Yenisei-river the Afanasyevo-culture came into existence around 2200 B.C., and in form of tools and motives of ceramics, we may discover several Mesopotamian parallels arriving here via Western-Iran(Hancar, F.: “Das Pferd in prehistorischer und früher historischer Zeit”, 1956, cited by 31.,), but very close parallels can be pointed out with South-Russian “holed-tomb” and Tripolye-culture too. Which is best striking above the material relics and proofs that the anthropological caracteristicals of the “holed-tomb”- and Afanasyevo-cultures are identical, and we may find that short-headed “Plump-Europid” population with wide face and low forehead, which later will give the determinant anthropologic factor of the steppes of Eurasia untill the relatively late appearance of the Mongoloid type (above book of Hancar, F.,1956, Jettmar, K.,et alii:“Geschichte Mittelasiens”,1966, Childe,G.:“Vorgeschichte der europaischen Kultur”,1949, cited by 31.,) in the steppe. It happened first in South-Russia and in the area of Altai-Yenisei 3000 kilometers distance from each other at the end of 3rd millenia B.C., while there is no bond between this two groups of the same ethnic formation in the huge geographic territory of Ob, Obol, Irtys and Ural. But this two group became the root of that united “Andronovo-culture” in the huge territory between the Altai and Ural and between the area of Ob-Irtys-Tobol and Khazastan after 1700 B.C. Very soon - adding to it the already more widely spread population of South-Russia - the same “Plump-Europid”population dominated the steppes from Eastern-Europe to the Altai. Researchers established, the spread of “Andronovo-culture” to such huge territories can be explained only by the ethnic and cultural fusing into each other of Bronze-Age cultures of Afanasyevo, North-Turkestan, South-Russian “holed-tomb”-culture (Hancar, 1956). The agriculture will be general in the steppes, and a high level of bronze-culture appear suddenly without transition (Jettmar et alii, 1966).

The above datas can show obviously, that we must suppose very close ethnogenetic and culture-historical connections between the depopulation of the town-cultures of Western-Turkestan at the end of 3rd millenia B.C. and formation of Afanasyevo as well as Andronovo cultures, but first of all in the appearance of that Chinese Bronze Age after 2000 B.C., which grown out from the Yang-Shao culture (31., 26-31).

Obvious, that between 2500 and 1600 B.C. a new ethnic formation bringing higher form of culture appearing on steppes from south-western direction introducing agriculture and the animal-domestication, as well as the knowledge of metal-procession (Randa, A.: “Handbuch der Weltgeschichte”, 1954, cited by 31.,). As the final result of establishment of “Lapis Lazuri Road” we may find in Central Asia - in nothern and western borders of that huge territory, which became China later on - the formation of a Scythian Empire. It was the confederation of smaller feudal kingdoms and smaller town-states - just as the former Sumerian Empire of the ancient Mesopotamia was the confederation of the smaller town-states. This empire was composed by Europid Scythians, to which the Mongoloid type added, and became the examplary of the Scythic-Mongoloid symbiosis.

It was the Hunnish Empire.


II., Anthropological evidences

In Western descriptions of Huns we find the portrait of monsters. But some of them allow, they were human beings, although it not means, that they had a refreshing sight. Rather they were gnomes, who were not able to walk as normal humans in their stunted and short feet. They were similar to gorillas or other anthropoid apes. They were short with their wide shoulders and thick neck, and they were human-like only on horseback. According to the Italian cronicles, the Hun-related Hungarians were at least such unbearable people as the Huns were: “a monstrous nation, a horrid tribe, a tribe more cruel than any wild beasts”/mostrifera natio, horrenda gens, gens omni belua crudeilor/ (51.,164). The German Otto von Freising marching through in Hungary in his crusade of Holy Land, admired the patience of God in giving so beautiful country not to human beings but monsters (52., 448). But the disinterested observer Arabian Gardizi found, that the Hungarians are nice-looking and handsome (53., 144).

Can the Asian eyes see differently as the European ones do?

It was awaited from the devout subject of the newly established “Respublica Christiana”of Europe to see the Christian and non-Christian world differently and in accordance of the “holy” rules of Holy Inquisition, which is well-illustrated by many contemporary works. Let’s devote ourselves to an example through a “scholarly” imagination of a God-fearing monk of 12th century (54.,100-101), which shows how the Asians looks allegedly/pict.2./ Obviously, a medieval European became influenced by the spirit of Holy Inquisition profoundly, but it is regrettable, that the average Westerner still brain-washed almost the same way, since still there is not generated a REAL serie of REAL information about that Asia, from which Europe is evolved out actually. By the European eyewitnesses the Huns are caracterized as not tall, but rather short peoples, while one of the important findings of Huns of Shipovo show a 170 and a 185 cm tall male-, and a 175 cm tall female-skeleton. But the male-skeleton in the famous Hunnish tomb of Vienna-Simmering was 180 cm long too. The probability is very great, that there were gnomes among the Huns also, as they can be found among Frenchmen, Swedes, Englishmen, Spaniards, Germans, and the probability is also high, that there were short men among the Huns as well as tall ones too. The big cementeries of both Hunnish and post-Hunnish periods are such wonderful examples of the multicolour harmony and unity of different races, which can compared only to the magnificant 9th Symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven. As several other contemporary cementeries, the Gepidic graveyard of Kiszombor in Hungary is showing the race-mixture of the Nordic, East-Mediterranean, Turanid and Mongolid ethnic formations (55.,289), since the Gepids - as most other tribes of that period - are mixed with the Huns and probable they weren’t clear Nordic even in their original Scandinavian homeland. In the cementeries of the Avars beside the European variations at least four kind of Mongoloids occurred as Sinid, Baikal, Yenisei and Tungid (56.,251-279). According to the internationally known Hun-expert Maechen-Helfen, among the Huns were blond and red bearded and haired, blue and green eyed. The old Chinese name of Mongols was “huang t’ou Shih-wei”(Yellow-head Shih-wei), since there were many blondes among them. Gengiz Khan (and his descendants) had reddish hair and suggesting dark-blue eye, just as his father had, why he got the “Blue Wolf” nick-name (57.,358-369). Whether from what tribe the Japanese Sakanoke-no Tamuramaro’s “Chinese” ancestor Achi-no Omi came with his reddish face and yellow beard (58.,114)? It became established by Maechen-Helfen (59.,235-236) and became enforced by Gimpu Uchida (60.,), that Europoids constructed predominant part of the Huns. Maybe the biggest fault of these blond and red big louts were, that they liked girls, especially those ones, who had almond eyes. Such girls took their hook in great numbers around the Yellow River, where the boarder of their empire was, so they interbreeded by Mongoloids. In the same way as it is followable from a little booklet showing the substance of an ouvre, by which the world biggest anthropological collection became selected in Carpathian-basin, but in these pictures we can see those Huns, who looks now just as they looked 2-3 millenia ago near the Great Wall of China (61.,). Surely, their face was far more refined and meditative still a millenia ago, as it is still seen on the fragments of sculptures and frescoes of ancient Central Asia, and it is obvious too, that this people was not as barbarious, as those professors of leading universities, who are still rolling further automaticly without any sign of responsible thinking that “barbarian” qualification, which is delivered from that approach of history, which still established by the Holy Inquisition, just because the Hun culture was “heretic”, but not “ortodox”. Nevertheless for this case it was able to be pure, organic, refined and effective just as that East-Asian mentality, which was able to develop further unbroken from this culture (10., 62., 63., 64., 65., 66.,) /pict.3/.

The general approach to this phenomene is well-illustrated by a scoop of “Discover” (67., 68-77), then of “Time” (68.,). It became followed by a week-end supplement of a leading Australian magazine under the title: “Celestial Bodies”, which became “buried in Central Asia thousands of years ago, these remarkably preserved corpses have led to more questions than answers” (69., 41-47). Necessary to add, that we may get the appropriate answers only, if we will be able to overcome our Europocentric bias, since the general ignorance about these important ancient events is well-reflected by the reaction of Prof. Victor Mair of Pennsylvania University. The scoop is related to an archeological finding, since Chinese anthropologists digged out more than 100 mummified Europid corpses in East Turan (Xinjiang), significant part of them are blonde, each of them as old as the mummies of ancient Egypt are. Prof. Mair informed us, that these “Indo-Europeans” came from Scandinavia and Germany to teach the usage of wheel for Chinese around 1200 B.C., although the truth is written down by a Hungarian-born American anthropologist Izabella Horvath (70., 9) based on the research of Han Kangxin. Accordingly, the mummies belong not to West-European types, rather are the caracteristicals of the Scythians of Asia and they are similar to the Siberian population between 3000-1000 B.C. Mair forgot also, that the wheel was known in the Yangshao-culture of China 5000 years ago, so it not came from Europe. The mummies belong to the proto-Hunnish culture, as it is established by Prof. Wu En and became written in a new article (71., 95-108), then it became conluded (72., 46-49) basing mostly on the research of Prof. Han Kangxin. According to it, the area has no human remains from the Paleolithic Age, so the earliest inhabitants are incomers. As the result of examinations of the 3800 years old mummies digged out in East Turan (Xinjiang), we can be sure, that the proto-European racial type reached the area in this period, or maybe earlier. The bones digged out belong to the Andronovo-culture, which gave the inhabitants of Central Asia, South Siberia and Kazahstan between 2000-1000 B.C., and to that Afanastyevo-culture, which gave the inhabitants of between the upper region of Yenisei and Altai, hence these Turanian remains are the eastward elongation of the most ancient European racial type. In the B.C. period a Caucasoid people close to the East-Mediterranean race (also called Indo-Afghan type) reached Eastern Turan immigrating from West to East reaching Lop Nor and Tien Shan. An other racial type caracterised by the short skull-form close to the Pamir-Ferghana type appeared at the upper part of the Ili River 3000 years ago, showing the mix of the Mongoloid and East-Mediterranian races. Finally the question can be rised: where we can find the descendants of the inhabitants of ancient East Turan (Xinjiang)? If we take a glance to the Uygurs, Kazakhs, Uzbegs and Tartars, who are living there today, many of them has obvious Caucasoid facial features, but there is a people in Middle-Europe, which is close racially to the ancient inhabitants of East Turan (Xinjiang). They are the Hungarians. To the territory of Hungary the Huns arrived at 374 from East Turan (Xinjiang), where they established the center of their huge empire. The Avars, the once strong North-Chinese Rourans also arrived here at 567, then an other Oriental people, the Hungarians also came here at 896. Pál Lipták Hungarian anthropologist digging out bones of 9th century established, that the local inhabitants of Hungary of that period had 24% Turanian racial type, 20% Pamirian type and other 2-3% belonged to the early Asian types. According to anthropologists, the Turanian type is the mixture of Andronovo and Mongoloid races. The Pamirian type was an important ancient race of East Turan, while the earlier Asian types means an other European type came into existence in Asia. This is the clear evidence, that the 9th century Hungarians had blood-relations with the best archaic inhabitants of Northwestern China. According to Henkey (61.,), the present Hungarian racial type is basically the same as it was in the 9th century, because the bulk of settlers from South-Germany c. 300 years ago belonged to Hun and Avar types and most of them are also the result of Scythoid-Nordic-Mongoloid intermixture.

Consequently we may rise the question again: if Attila not lost the Battle of Catalaunum, whether, the Franco-German aristocracy of early France was not Hunnic rather? Up today no serious research was done in connection of Central Asia and Turan, and the real discovery of the region seems to be quite actual. Well, let’s continue our investigation!


III., Architecture and Spirituality

Turan had a highly developed architecture, although it not made out of stone as the buildings of Greco-Roman civilization (which is still considered as “superior” in West), but it made from the traditional building material of Mesopotamia. It was the material of the Mother Earth. But this adobe and mud-wall architecture basing on archaic Mesopotamian way of building, and was able to create such monumental compositions, which is survived not only in the Chinese architecture, but established that grandious world of forms, that burst into blossoming at the Western end of Eurasia centuries later. Beside the earth, the other basic material crowning and determining the architectural compositions was the wood. Such kind of combination of these two basic materials (the mother-earth + the wood growing out from the earth) were the creators of a kind of organic or bio-architecture in “modern” sense, which was able for recycling or reuniting with the mother-earth after usage.

We may find once flowered, now ruined towns on the wide, open spaces of Turan. Nevertheless there are important archeologic finds in places too, where we can not see nothing, or just we see an unsignificant hillock. Still we may see the once grandious walls of fortresses and towns made of mud, at many places, but we may not see them any more at the other place, because they vanished for ever /pict.4./. These walls made by the same way in Mesopotamia formerly, but made in the same way in Europe or in China too later on. Since considerable part of the monumental walls of China made of mud too, although here they became covered with stone-plates later on. But quite often the buildings became carpentered from wood only, since the best important building material of the traditional monumental architecture of China, Korea and Japan is the wood. Probably the only basic difference between the architecture of ancient Turan and the later East-Asia, that while in the latter area we have knowledge of usage of elaborated tiles made of ceramics, but we don’t know about the same thing in Turan. But since the findings are the proof of the highly developed Turanian carpentery and wood-carving, we may suppose, that the best widely used tiles were shingles, and the tatched roof, since both kind of coverings were in general use in both Europe and East-Asia later on.

But the similarity especially between China and Turan is very great at least in one thing.

Many of the place and name of the once flowered archaic towns are well-known, but we can not see nothing in the surface. In both Turan and China the natural recycling is quite intensive because of the primal importance of the two natural materials of mud and wood. Still there is an other factor. While in Turan the desert, in China the agriculture made whole towns disappear. For example the once famous capital of the Han dynasty, Loyang, was situated farther on with several kilometres as the modern town Loyang is, and everything vanished from this ancient metropolis, except some pieces of the massive town-walls. The all area is plough-land now and apart from the wells - which are probable in usage since the Han-period - the town and the palace-district passed their territory to kitchen-gardens. Around the wells there are pieces of ceramics in several layers, which became pulled up by water-buckets and thrown away in the past 16 centuries. The land became even and the late capital disappeared without any trace (73.,). The same became done by the sand and wind in the deserted Turan. So some hillocks seems to be so unsignificant still can be secreted significant towns or other great findings of huge importance.

Examining the building-techniques in different parts of Asia, it is turning out, that the wood play secondary role compared to the stone and ceramics in the Islamic and Indian architecture, while in East-Asia the wood is the principal material of the monumental buildings. At the process of formation of some important Asian architecture-styles, the significan part of the determining shapes of stone-elements are coming from the forms of timber-constructions. It is especially well-followable in India, but it is true in China too. We may suppose rightfully, that in the earliest period most of the Asian peoples developed wide range of timber-structures, which had differences according to the local conditions. In this way that timber-skeleton-structure came into existence, which were used across Eurasia (74.,147-167). Unfortunate fact is, that no summary exist about the wodden-architecture of Asia, and to have a comprehensive picture about it is necessary to collect from the subordinate remarks of the works of architecture-history (75., 113).

We may reason out the oldest forms of the Asian wodden-architecture from the illustrations of the earliest reliefs and wall-paintings and from the results of excavations. Even in China we can not find too archaic remains. The oldest building-complex of wodden-structure can be found in Japan: the Hoyuji Buddhist monastery in Nara from 607 A.D. Nevertheless not only the written records speaks about tower-like high buildings raised on four-angled basement, and used for outposts first of all in China, but we may see their original shape examining those earthen models, which were found in the tombs of Han-period (2nd century B.C. to 2nd century A.D.). In their basic form they not differ too much from the caracteristicals of modern examples of the typically Chinese buildings, but it is well-visible, that the specially Chinese curved roof still was not fashionable at that time. The function of these originally military towers (called “t’ai”) changed later on and they became Buddhist pagodas while maintaining their original, traditional form (73.,). But the Han-tombs preserved not only the models of towers, but the mockups of dwelling houses too /pict. 5./. Their shape is corresponding with the form of the oldest Chinese Buddhist shrine called “Four Gate Pagoda”(Se Men T’a) of Shantung province from 544 A.D.

But datas of the older period of Asian wodden-architecture related to the Huns can be gained from the archeological activity of Stein near Khotan, where he excavated whole towns with fortresses and well-decorated buildings (75.,). From the description of the structure of these buildings it is turning out, that the basement was constructed from huge timbers just in the same way, as it was in practice in the Hungarian village-architecture not long ago. This base was the holder of those timbers, by which ones the roof was uphold, but in the same time they gave the structure of the walls too. Outside of these roof-upholding timbers more thinner bars were placed closely each other giving a firm support for the all structure, to which a matting (of tamarix-twigs) became fixed from inside, then a thick plaster-work came both inside and outside. The description of Stein is fit exactly to that method, which was widely used in Hungary - and probably in all Europe - till this century for the construction of houses, fortresses and temples. But it was used by the Huns not only in Khotan, but in other parts of Turan too, and it survived not only in Europe and in some parts of China, but in Japan also. The upholding structure of the earlier Chinese watch-towers was the same probably, where the space between the timbers maybe were filled not with matting of twigs and plaster-work, but with boarding. The probability is very high,that the watch-towers of the Huns were the same, since the surviving towers of Hungary and especially of Transylvania covered with shingles has similar form as the clay-models of towers found in Han-tombs has. The form of construction definitely related to the early Chinese towers is obviously kin, and by the further analysis of their forms is possible the reconstruction of the Hunnish towers. Since the composition of them with their widely opened, skirt-like basement and tent-like, spreading cover is remind us to not only the clay-models of Han-tombs, but some arrangement of Japanese architecture too. But because the tower-forms are close to the towers of Han-tombs and is considered by German art-historians as Old-German, is desired to look around the questions of the famous woodden palace of Attila. As we may know from sources as Priscus and Jordanes, it stood somewhere in the plain of the Carpathian basin of the 5th century. Since it was the palace of the strongest ruler of Europe, it was the symbol not only of mere military-political power, but as in case of every significant ruling power at that time, it’s connected strongly to the spirituality too. Consequently it was an effective and determinant esthetical power in evolution of the style of fortress-, castle- and sacral-architecture of Europe. Investigating to that contemporary palace- and fortress-architecture of Turan, from where this style may evolved out, we may know from Stein, what kind of techniques were used by such method of building: the foundation made of tamped clay, on which adobe-wall became built, that was strenghten with a layer of tamarix-twigs at every half-meters. Finally the caracteristical wodden-tower (known from the Han-tombs) crowned the fortress, which was the mark not only of the Huns and Avars (77., 31), but it was caracteristical for the earthen fortifications of the Hungarians too (78.,21), where between two fences (made of twig-matting) tamped-clay served as the wall of a fortress (79.,141). This technique was used across Eurasia and it gave the caracteristic appearance of most European fortresses (since the bulk of them made of mud and wood, only some of them made of stone) in the Middle Ages and it was used even in Japan at the beginning of this century. Although such kind of feature has typical European appearance in the eyes of the avarage spectator, and we have plenty of engravings from this early period of European architecture, nevertheless the probability is very high, that the more correct mark of this “European” style is rather “Eurasian”, since it came into existence in Turan.

The wodden-palace of Attila incorporated these Turanian features. As sacral ruler, his palace-complex was used for representative and cultic purpose too, consequently it had sacral caracteristical. Now we have more datas about Turan as Strzygowski had in his age, so we may question his statement, that the palace of Attila was built by Germans or Slavs, because the Huns were nomads and they weren’t able to build dwelling houses (80.,138-139). We may arrive to an other conclusion, because some short-spoken remarks of Priscus suggest something yet. If we know the contemporary spiritual conditions, we can conclude useful consequences. Namely Priscus remarked in connection of the castle of Queen Reka - the wife of Attila - that some circles are fixed in proportionally decreasing order on some construction. The mysteriously ambigous sentence will be unambigous if we consider, that Priscus found important to mention to this funny construction in his laconic statement, because it was sensational and striking in a well-visible place. It was almost impossible not to see and making some remark about it, since it seems to be an important symbol possessing a significant message from a world-feared king. Moreover it is obvious, that in the palace of the wife of the best powerful ruler the message of his lord was necessary to place to the best perceptable spot. Such an important symbol had an important meaning.

But in order to find out this meaning, we must take a little detour. We know about the priests of Attila, that they were shamans. But according to Eliade “the word “shaman” comes to us through from the Tungusic “saman”. The derivation of this term from the Pali “samana” (Sanksrit ”sramana”) through the Chinese “shamen” (a mere transcription of the Pali word), which was accepted by the majority of 19th century Orientalists...Then too, the discovery of similar words in Tokharian (samane = Buddhist monk) and Sogdian (smn = saman, means the same)...The word “shaman”...appears to be foreign to the Tungusic language...But, what is more important, the phenomene of shamanism itself displays elements of southern origin, specifically Buddhist elements...Buddhism penetrated quite far into northeastern Asia...It was principally Buddhism that served as the vehicle for the religious contribution of India in Central Asia” (9., 495-500). The spiritual-religious face of contemporary Central Asia was determined by different religions as the Zoroasterism, Nestorianism, Manicheanism are, but the best important was the Buddhism, and especially the esoteric version of it. Consequently the Tantra was the main determiminator of the spirituality of Turan, and it is obvious, that the shamans of Attila were the priests of this spiritual system first of all. This Indian system of tenets was known already in the 3rd -2nd century B.C. around Kashgar and it became known all Turan around the 1st century A.D. We also may know from Eliade, that: “shamanism defends life, health, fertility, the world of “light” against death, diseases, sterility, disaster, and the world of “darkness”. What is fundamental and universal is the shaman’s struggle against what we could call “the powers of evil”. It is hard for us to imagine what such a shamanism can represent for an archaic society. In the first place, it is the assurance that human beings are not alone in a foreign world, surrounded by demons and the “forces of evil”. In addition to the gods and supernatural beings to whom prayers and sacrifices are adressed, there are “specialists of the sacred”, men able to “see” the spirits, to go up into the sky and meet the gods, to descend to the under-world and fight the demons, sickness, and death. The shaman’s essential role in the defense of the psychic integrity of the community depends above all of this: men are sure that one of them is able to help them in the critical circumstances produced by the inhabitants of the invisible world. Consolatory to know that a member of the community is able to see what is hidden and invisible to the rest and to bring back direct and reliable information from the supernatural world” (16., 509). We must repeat, the shaman defends life, health and fertility first of all by a spiritual technique, which helps him to be in the “Center” of the existence, often occuring as “World Pillar”. By the words of Eliade: “The symbolism of the World Pillar is also familiar to more developed cultures - Egypt, India, China, Greece, Mesopotamia. Among the Babylonians, for example, the link between heaven and earth - a link symbolized by the Cosmic Mountain or its replicas (ziggurat, temple, royal city, palace) - was sometimes imagined as a celestial column...It is a universally diseminated idea connected with the belief in the possibility of direct communication with the sky. On the macrocosmic plane this communication is figured by the Axis (Tree, Mountain, Pillar, etc.)...”(9., 264). Since in the shamanistic cosmology we may confront with three levels of existence (sky-earth-underworld) around an axis (9., 259) manifesting on Buddhist stupas as a “Three-Level-of-Cosmic-Tree”, the question is answered about the statement of Priscus: “some circles are fixed in proportionally decreasing order on some construction”, since on the Ghandaran-type of stupa there is a Life Tree. Sometimes it has three level, sometimes it has seven ones(both 3 and 7 are sacred numbers of the East). “The identification of the seven-branched Cosmic Tree with the seven planetary heavens is certainly due to influences originally from Mesopotamia...Ascent to the sky along the Axis of the World is a universal and archaic idea, much earlier than the idea of traversing the seven celestial regions (= seven planetary heavens), which could only have spread through Central Asia long after Mesopotamian speculations on the seven planets. It is known that the religious value of the number 3 - symbolizing the three cosmic regions - preceeded the value of the number 7” (9., 274), and both of three- and seven-levelled Life Tree was used on the top of Gandaran-type stupas were used in India from the Kushan-period and it spread to the contemporary Turan, where it stood in every significant settlements. Hence the probability is very high, that the symbol from which the Greek Priscus became fascinated so much, was not other, but such kind of Life Tree: a shamanistic symbol manifesting a determination to protect the fertility-heritage of the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent, standing on the main spot of the castle of Queen Reka /pict.6./.

According to Eliade, Hedin, Rostow, Stein and the other authorative researchers of Turan, the spirituality of the region was shaped by Indian influences at that time. In order to understand that contemporary spirituality and culture of Turan, which was the basic determinant factor of the Turanian architecture, we can not neglect the sketchy description of that contemporary Indian spirituality and architecture, which served as an example for the Turanians.


a., Indian influences

The earliest cultural manifestations of India are connected to that Indus Civilization, which rised big cities built with burnt bricks, and lived with close symbios with Mesopotamia culturally and economically. Also, there was ethnical interchange, and the Indus Civilization was an additional branch of the evolvement of Mesopotamia or it happened inversely, and the possibility is very high, that the so called Aryan Invasion is not other, but the emanation of Scythoid population of Turan to India.

Consequently which we call Indian spirituality and culture, is something, which is close to the Scythoid one from the very beginnings of history.

First the wood were used as basic material for long time in the architecture of this India. Even if buildings made of timber and wood were not able to survive up today, but their structures and forms are survived by the carved representations of the stone-enclosures of stupas and reliefs. The stone buildings started to appear around the time of Christ as the result of contemporary Western influences. Sirkap, the oldest district of Taxila was a large city built of stone already in the Indo-Scythian period (81. I., 250), and the probability is quite high, that it evolved out as the architectural effect of the Parthian branch of the Scythians. The evolvement of the monumental type of stone-architecture is due to the Buddhism. After the “stupa” the “vihara” or “sangharama” (monastery), then the “chaitya” (hall of assemble) evolved out. But this recent one came into by special way, by the establishment of the prototype of that instuition of the teaching-cave by the hollowing out big halls from the stone body of mountains, which became so important in Turan and in China later on. Since the Buddhism is a kind of Teaching first of all, and not religion in that sense, as the Western monotheistic religions: the Judaism, Christianity and Islam are. Since it is a Teaching, it needs teaching-places, which resulted the creation of the serie of cave-complexes in India, decorated with such statues and wall-paintings, helping to understand the substances of this Teaching. The best known Buddhist cultic cave-complex in India is in Ajanta. This served as example for the later Turanian and Chinese teaching-complexes, which more and less became formed after Ajanta.

Nevertheless the “stupa” is the best spectacular manifestation of the Indian influences in Turan, which gave a definitely caracteristical and determinant look of a Turanian town.

The meaning of Sanksrit word “stupa” is “mound containing a relic” and originally it became installed commemorating the death of Sakyamuni, the historic Buddha. Usually there is a little niche in the stupa containing some relics, and in the top there is the shamanistic Life Tree, referring to the continuity of the life and the survival of the fertility-ideals of Fertile Crescent, since one important message of Buddhism is the consciousness of continuity. It is representing by the sky-high composition of stupa and Life Tree complex pointing to the eternity, cosmos, heaven, just as the ziggurats did: joining heaven and earth, as according the Mesopotamian belief, the Cosmic Mountain did (9., 267). The Mesopotamian influences reached India (9., 268), making the Indian spirituality and Buddhism also politheistic just as the fertility cults of ancient Western Asia were, calling for appropriate answering of the manifold challange of the manifold universe of spirits, demons and gods who try to lead the mind to a certain direction. And often not the best direction. But to find out what the appropriate is, no other way is exist, just the shamanic one: to find back to the Cosmic Center, Axis, Mountain, which is in the deepest layer of our Innermost Self. The Life Tree, Cosmic Three, Cosmic Axis, Cosmic Mountain give possibility for communication with heaven, the shaman can ascend to this heaven along this Axis, hiking this Mountain arriving to a concrete mystical, a personal and ecstatic experience. The mound, mountain, pyramid, zikkurat is the mark of this process - from which the tower evolved out - pointing to the direction of that Heaven (as the Center of the World, Cosmic Pillar, Iron Mountain, Mount Meru etc.), which the shaman - our innermost self - must to reach. One of the biggest Tantric Buddhist cultic center - Borobudur - is built in the form of terraced mountain, is one of the best expressive manifestation of this Mesopotamian heritage. Hence the Buddhism is the continuity of the former Western-Asian fertility cults: Buddha - coming from the Indo-Scythian Sakya tribe - declared, that “buddhas” existed before him and they will appear after him: an endless serie’s continuity of Enlighted Ones, which is exist from the beginning of beginnings, who teach the necessity of enforcement of the consciousness of such continuity after their Enlightenment. Nevertheless this Enlightenment is not other, but the harmonious joining of Heaven and Earth, or realization of the coincidence of Microcosmos and Macrocosmos by utilization of the fertile-creative aspects of existence.

The stupa is the symbol of this intention.

The great king of India in the 3rd century B.C., Ashoka contributed to the formation of Christianity in a special way. Due to him the Buddhism was known in West-Asia in that time, and the young, talented Jesus was able to start his study in India when he was 16 years old. But due to Ashoka it spread to Ceylon in the 3rd century B.C. and to Kashgar of Turan around the 3rd-2nd century B.C. According to the records, he ordered the renovation of older “mounds holding relics”, and he ordered to build new ones not only for the historical, Sakyamuni Buddha, who born c. in 544 B.C., but for the former ones too. Since the line is endless. One of the description of Ashoka is relate to his order of enlargement of the stupa of a former Enlightened One: Kanakamuni Buddha. The expression Sakya-muni, Kanaka-muni (the Wise One of the Sakya-tribe, the Wise One of the Kanaka-tribe) is suggest also, that the point of Enlightenism (since this is the meaning of Buddhism) is not the appearance of a brand new idea as it we may experience in the case of Moses, Paul or Mohamed, but enforcement of the consciousness of continuity. Or how the archaic Sumerian idea of joining Heaven and Earth can be realised in a new situation? How possible to teach the possible best intensive techniques of Self-Purification and Self-Recreation? How to make able others to awaken for the Endlessness of Everyone? How would be possible to recreate our relation to Nature, especially to our best Innermost Nature? These questions were allways important for the enough sensitive and responsible personalities, and some of them had enough persistence after long-lasting studies to arrive to the desired results, understanding the final cause of the interrelationedness and interdeterminedness of all things, and became “The Wise One”, that “One Who Knows Everything”, the “Enlightened One”, or in Sanksrit “Buddha”. But similar wisemen were in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia or in Indus-Civilization too, but not became named as “Buddha” in Sanksrit, but other name became given them in the Old-Egyptian or Sumerian language, which means samething similar.

The stupa has similar meaning too. It means a kind of continuity: it express a permanence of intention for Understanding of the Final Cause of All Things. The simpler, older traditional form of it forms a mould expressing the “anda”, or world-egg, which is the manifestation of the creative process of fertility determining the wholeness of the cosmos. It is a half-egg, half-ball, then later the form of a bell-form with 3, 7, 9 or more level of Life-Tree on the top, as it can be seen in Sanchi-stupa built in the 1st century B.C. At the arrangement of this classic Great Stupa, the four point of the compass in the form of four gate /pict.7./.

The complete perception of the complicate and intricately complex, not easily undestandable natural - temporal and cosmic - processes demands firm points of orientation. The manifold substances, faces and the variations of that Law of Existence, which determinate the working of world, demand a kind of hiearchy, or a definite and clear order of things, and the unambigious naming of them. These ennamings happened with a kind of stylistically archaic, but methodically scientific way, although within the frameworks of a different perception of world. This way of perception is which we call magico-mystic today, but which was regarded as obvious and natural by the contemporary way of thinking rooted deeply in mythology and in the cosmically wide extension of nature. But in order to help the imagination to arrive to an appropriately high level of energy, or perception for grasping the organic wholeness of cosmic nature in search an appropriate maping process of our existence, which may show out basic points of the really profound understanding - we need the help of not only the dry logic, but the initiation of more wider spaces of intuition, which can be fueled by the more deeper veils of emotions, or rather instincts. Such kind of challenge was answered by the archaic, magico-mystic, politheistic world-concept appropriately, and with considerable effectivity. This approach gave different names for the different substances of nature, just as the modern science do it. But because this kind of approach was bounded to the nature with straining every nerve, a high degree of respectful expectation, humbleness and devotion: or rather instinctual-emotinal identity and obvious acceptance of their importance became associated with it. For this case instead of H2O, the expression of “The Spirit of Water”, or “The God of Water” was used. This kind of more wholesome approach to the manyfold richness of the world of manyfold substance is represented in the quite often superciliously modern valuation as animism, or primitive nature-worship, not being able to percept, that our modern world-concept became inferior. But this modern superciliousness not able to percept the fact too, that this pile of substances has a definite direction being added together into a phenomene, which is called Law serving the same purpose, as the God of monotheism serve. But the polytheistic one centered around nature able to accomplish this purpose in a more delicate, and more profound way.

That four directions of the compass, which give four main essential basis of symbolic orientation on the map of this complicated world, at the classic Great Stupa of Sanchi were present already. The precondition of orientation is the knowledge of the map, or the knowledge of the real- and the faked-ways and mazes, without which the start of a spiritual way would be especially dangerous. There is a Buddhist map, which can help us to proceed on the way of self-purification, while avoiding the faked ways and mazes of our hidden inorganic features, and with which we can arrive to our Final Goal: our Purest Self. This map is called “mandala”in Sanksrit. The classical Indian sacral stone-architecture came into existence due to Buddhism, and their ground-plan is forming a mandala mostly, but the silhouette is given by the spatial projection of their ground-plans at most of the cases. Although the Great Stupa of Sanchi can be regarded as the more classic type of stupas, which itself established a trend of stupa-building, nevertheless there is a relatively newer style of stupa, which became classic also. This type of stupa is standing at the place of Enlightenment of the historic Sakyamuni Buddha in Bodhgaya. Since the Perfect Enlightenment means “Mahabodhi” in Sanksrit, this type of stupa standing at Bodhgaya is not other, but the perfect spacial projection of a mandala. This space-mandala had decisive role in the process of formation of the face of the later evolved Eurasian settlements. The original version of the school-founding style of this classic “Mahabodhi” form of space-mandala of Bodhgaya (India) built c. 5th-7th century A.D./pict.8./, but it modelled after that original version, which was built by the Indo-Scythian king Kanishka in the 1st century A.D. Consequently it can be called Scythian style rightfully, since it evolved out in those nothern Scythoid areas, which can be called classic not without reason being as developed as India in the ancient times. The architectural archetype-caracteristicals of this form was decisive in the shaping of landscape of ancient towns of Turan and later Europe.

Because this architectural form called by European art-historians Gothic-tower, still not means, that it developed out by Goths, but it went to Western part of Eusasia by the Great Migration, and spread all over Europe, but prior to its spreading, it was necessary to appear in a sinificant place in quite influental situation. We must suppose rightfully, that it served as the architectural crown on the wodden palace of Attila. Since the strongest ruler of his age obviously used the strongest architectural symbol of his culture, or religion, and obviously, the palace of a sacral ruler had sacral caracteristicals. It is very probable, that the Hun Empire brought those cultic forms of architecture to West-Eurasia, which became evolved out in Turan due to Indo-Scythian influences, since the “Mahabodhi”-tower is a known form of stupa. Stein and other researchers called Turan “Serindia”, “Sino-india” or Chinese India, and not without reason. This ennaming is quite similar to the Indochina expression, which is marking an other territory of South, which is between China and India just as Turan of North was, and which absorbed Indian or rather Indo-Scythian influences primarily and later Chinese ones, by which the Scythian heritage became developed further on. In Turan the Indo-Scythian influences had primal importance, hence we may regard Turan, or Sinoindia as the Nothern version of Indochina, consequently from the almost unchanged cultural traditions of Indochina many, already lost aspects of the Turanian civilization can be reconstructed.

Since the probality is very high, that the Mahabodhi-tower was a determinant architectural factor of the landscape of Turanian Serindia similar way as it is still a determinant factor in the present-day Indochina. One of best monumental form of the Mahabodhi-towers of Indochina can be found in Pagan of Burma, which was built in the 3rd century A.D., and it became modelled after the stupa of Bodhgaya /pict.9/. But the Mahabodhi-tower of Bodhgaya gave inspiration to the stupa-builders of Chieng Mai /pict.10/ and the already ruined central building of the Wat Mahathat shrine of Sukothai /pict.11/ of Tailand. A pagoda of Mandalay (Burma)/pict.12/ is the further development of this “archetype” of architecture just as the complex of sacral towers of Pagan from 11th century /pict.13/ may be regarded too. The late variations of this “archetype” can be marked with names, as the famous Angkor Wat of Cambodia, the shrine near Vientiane of Laos /pict.14/ or Wat Kukut of Thailand /pict.15/. But the monumental complex of Borobudur of Indonesia from 9th century covering 5 kms at all /pict.16/ is belonging to this category, although it occurs almost everywhere in Buddhist world, for example in Patan of Nepal (82.,) /pict.17/. Borobudur of Java is almost a town serving sacral purposes just as the ruin-complex of Bali /pict.18/ did in a more moderate proportion. But the sacral feature is seen in the ancient Thai town Besaki /pict.19/, moreover it seems to be quite “Gothic” with its sky-high towers. But the sky-scrapingly pin-pointed, slender elegance of this “tower-archetype” forming Life Tree of a wondrous complex of Thai Ayutaya /pict.20/ or Shukotai /pict.21/ is also looks “Gothic” somehow. But the monumental Wat Aloon stupa-complex of the downtown of Bankok /pict.22/ belong to this group too, since they give the unambigous features of the architectural landscape of Indochina.

We know from the formerly cited example of the old Han-capital, Loyang, how ancient Chinese metropolises are vanished. But we know from the records of researchers of Central Asia, that the same happened in Turan too, where there are places we can not see nothing now, but 1-2 millenia ago a metropolis flowered there. Even from the beginning of this century many ruins became absorbed by sand-storms and by the greedy sand-ocean. Hence we may suppose, that the “Gothic” like Buddhist architectural archetype of space-mandala occured in Turan at least so often as it is occuring in Indochina today. We can find ruins in Turfan and Yal with the earth-basement of this Mahabodhi-structure, and we know, that the earth-structures were combined with wood, hence we may rebuild the ruined towers of Turfan and Yal. By the usage of our imagination adding to the remained mud-base similar wodden-constructions which we know from Han-tombs: we may take pleasure in the sight of those one-time monumental Mahabodhi-structures of Turan, which can be in the front of our eyes with their sky-scraping cosmic-orientation expressing with sweeping dynamism of the Teaching with obvious unambigouity /pict.23/. We may take our delight in the same “Gothicly” elegant slenderness, omnipotent easyness and brilliant, luxorious magnificance, as we can enjoy it in Indochina of our modern age. Consequently we have enough reason to suppose not without reason, that the Indochinese-like sacral shrine-complexes, as the Royal Palace of Bankok is /pict.24/, appeared in Sinoindia, which are resembled to the Indochinese ones in their spectacle, silhouette, view, and in their picturesque appearance of “Gothic” features.

Such features caracterized the wodden palace of Attila too.

b., “Gothica” or “Hunnica”?

We must remind to Strzygowski, who regard some basic structural forms of the Slavic building techniques as the modell of Gothic architecture. We mention those allegedly Slavic forms, about which something different may turn out in the case of more systematic investigation. Also, it may turn out, that this architectural complexity can be traced back to different variations of an element: the “Mahabodhi”-tower, which became brought to the West by the Great Migration.

If the serious inquirer may look after the known phenomene between the two W.W.at any bigger library of the world, when theory of the Central-Asian origin of Western civilization flowed even from the water-taps of the circles of art-historians due to Strzygowski, the late professor of art-history of the Vienna University. Unfortunate fact, that this noted gentleman became sweeped out from the heads just before the W.W.2 because of his Jewish origin, and it seems, that noone remember him, nevertheless the still quite actual analysis of his life-work is not happened up today, since now is timely to understood: where Strzygowski is mistaken and where he is right. Since it is obvious, that the ancient culture of Old-Slavs is overstatement, and decisive part of the Old-Slavic sacral architecture can be traced back to the archetypical forms of the Mahabodhi-tower, the spatial projection of mandala. In the concept of mandala, we can arrive to that center of cosmic existence (which is called as God in the monotheistic religions) travelling across of the best secreted layers of our Innermost Self: is waiting for discovery and unfolding. This is identical with the Basic Frequency of the Cosmos and Universe, but in the same time identical with the God-concept of monotheism too. This is that Invisible Basic Frequency or Principle of the Cosmos, which we can feel if we able to dig deeply into the best sensitive layers of Innermost Self. We must confront with our profoundest layers and investigate into it independently from the fact: whether we can find good or bad things there. Not only the tensions and traumas are hiding there, but the possiblity of perfect relation to the Totality of Existence. Hence the Center of Cosmos is in the very Center of our Innermost Self. Here is the Cosmic Center, World-Pillar, Life-Tree, Cosmic-Mountain or Mount Meru is the closest to that Totality, which is often called God. The shaman (our Innermost Self) can reach the Totality or Heaven. In the center of mandala (or space-mandala) the Mount Meru is marking the Center of both Cosmos and our Innermost Self, the manifestation of Totality. As this “heretic” sacral archetype of architecture went to westward used by both Buddhists and gnostic Christians, its sky-scraping monumentality captivated the imagination of the “ortodox” Christians too. The big tower in the center symbolizing Mount Meru became the allegory of the magnificant power of God, while the four little towers of the four corners - the symbol of four directions of compass - became the allegory of four apostles.

Within the Indian culture-zone between the main tower and the four corner-towers more little towers come often marking the gods (or substances of nature) of secondary importance, made more dense, rich and luxoriant the composition, as the Dharmaraja-ratha temple in Mahabalipuram of India /pict.25/ or Krishna Mandir temple of Patan, Nepal /pict.26/ is. The parallel we may discover in Kiji of Russian Karelia, in the form of Jesus’ Apotheosis Cathedral having 22 cupolas rebuilt in 1714 /pict.27/. But most Russian temples follow the traditional Mahabodhi-structure, as the cathedral of Vladimir rebuilt in 12th century /pict.28/, where the classic Buddhist example is followed: in the middle there is a big tower around which are four little towers. This is not only on the more new church of 16th -17th century of Rostov /pict.29/ and by the Baroque St. André Temple of Kiev/pict.30/, but the ortodox-temple of Alma Ata built by Tzarist colonizators of Kazahstan /pict.31/. But the cathedral with bubiform spire on the famous Red Square being not only the town-symbol /pict.32/, but a Mahabodhi composition just as the Pavlov-temple of Moscow /pict.33/ or the famous tower of the Lomonosov University /pict.34/ This tower of Moscow is very European, because Europe is full with this structure and the further developed variations of it. But the world of Islam is also full with it. One of the architectural wonder of the world - the Taj Mahal of India - just descendant of Mahabodhi composition /pict.35/, as the Aya Sophia of Istambul is, as well as many other kins from all over of the Islamic world. The substance of this composition is a dome in the middle and four, slender towers in the four corners, which is the Islamization of Buddhist concept of Mount Meru and the four direction of the compass in the same way, just as the Christenization of it also happened a millenia ago all over the Western world. It was able to happen, because it represent an archetype, and alhough the brutality of Holy Inquisition was able to surpass the “heretic” demands of our Innermost Self, but since the life is going on, such victory can be temporal only. Since the “archetype” reflects constant demands, as well as remind us, that the old Europe isn’t as old as she likes to believe, although the roots of her civilization is really ancient. But in an other way, for which the Mahabodhi-structures of Stockholm /pict.36/, Lausanne /pict.37/, or Ypres /pict.38/, as well as the magnificant dynamism of temple-complex of Mont-Saint-Michel remind us without words: just ruling the landscape of Normandy with silently royal manner /pict.39/.

Strzygowski established, that the Gothic architecture is coming from Slavs, and one of his representative “Slavic” example is from Slovakia, although he forgot to mention, the area was part of the Hun Empire, and the nearby Transylvania have a folk-architecture of Hun-descendant Székelys. Their wodden-structures used up today are forming just the same Mahabodhi-tower, which is one of the best caracteristical forms of the European architecture since the early Medieval Age. Hence we know the sacral architecture of Indochina and we can reconstruct the building-style of Sinoindia, we must know either, why the heaven-touching dynamism of these wooden temples of East-Europe resembling so much not only to the sky-scraping slenderness of the Buddhist stupas of Indochina, but to the magnificance of Chartres and elegant delicacy of Mont-Saint-Michel too. Since the fragile immaterialness directing our imagination to the spiritual world caracteristical for the sacral buildings of Indochina find their kinship not only in the Gothic cathedrals from the Golden Age of European art, but in those wooden-temples of Eastern-Europe too, which still retain the features of the once flowered sacral architecture of Turan. The etheral dynamism, spiritful elegance and delicate proportion of the wooden-temples of Transylvanian Felsõfüld /pict.40/, Egerbegy /pict.41/, Csizér /pict.42/, Kisesküllõ /pict.43/, Nagypetri /pict.44/, Nyárfás /pict.45/, Magyargyerõmonostor /pict.46/, Damos /pict.47/, Bánffyhunyad /pict.48/ etc. stand the comparison with the sacral-complexes of Thailand or the allegedly Gothic Western-European cathedrals of Middle Age.

These wooden Mahabodhi-towers of Eastern-Europe originating from Asia, and their reconstruction is happen in that way, which is well-known from Japan, where they became rebuilt from time to time just in the same form as they became raised up originally. The famous Horyu-ji temple-complex of Nara in Japan looks today exactly so, as it looked 1300 years ago, when it became created in 607 A.D., since it became rebuilt at every 60 years. Unfortunately, the stormy history not allowed the rebuilding of the wodden-treasures of Transylvania, nevertheless we may know, that their last dates of reconstruction are from the 17th and 18th centuries (83.,). Their matured style and high esthetical level of their proportion and their ancient Asian parallels are the evidence of their honorable age defying millenias. The Scythian Kanishka built the first Mahabodhi-tower in the 1st century A.D., and surely, it was on that wooden-palace of Attila, which according to Priscus:serving beauty rather, than protective strength”.

Consequently, if Attila not lost the Battle of Catalaunum, we may suppose: this sacral archetypal element of architecture (reminding us to the necessity of self-purification) had chance to spread freely all over Europe.


c., The towns of Serindia

But we may suppose something yet.

We have knowledge about the existence of ruined towns of the mostly deserted Turan, and we have knowledge about some single walls at many points of this archaic area far from each other. If in the place of the former Chinese capital of the Han-period only some walls remind us for the existence of an ancient metropolis, we may suppose, that the walls in present Turan are the mark of an old fortress, settlement, or town. We know, that the hunger of desert made nonexistent walls, about which photos were made at the beginning of this century. If it was able to happen within a century with such an effectivity, whether, how much Mesopotamian-like earth-structures vanished due to the irresistable of the destroyer sand storms (which able to annihilate concrete-structures easily) since a millenia whether, how many towns vanished from the territory of this once highly civilized area?

We may suppose: many. But to imagine how many, let’s investigate into the remote past of Turan basing on the documentary series of NHK TV-channel of Japan about that “Silk Road”, which is started far before the silk itself became an object of commerce, although the production of silk started about 3000 years ago in China. The phenomene, which we may call as “The Culture of the Silk Road” by rough definition, had huge impact to the evolution of both Europe and China due to the mixing of Western and Eastern values.”The Culture of Silk Road” was very ancient international culture. For example the name of watermelon in Chinese and Japanese is “Western-melon”, since it came to East-Asia from West. Many fruits and vegetables in China are Western, hence the Chinese names of cucumber, walnut, big-bean, sesame, garlic etc. coming from Huns. A millenia ago many new games came to Changan, the center of East-Asia, and many new dances, new music, and funny things like acrobatics coming from West. Changan, capital of Tang-dynasty is product of “Culture of Silk Road”. China’s greatness is due to the continous serie of effects, which was able to ensure this greatness. For this case Changan became the biggest city of the time: it was New York of the contemporary world. As USA and New York of our age want to excel, and to create the biggest things in every respects, the contemporary China and Changan wanted to be the greatest in every sense. For this case the builders of the tomb of Emperor Wu-ti, who finally defeated the Huns of the West, wanted to surpass the monumentality of Egyptian pyramids of the West, symbolizing of greatness of Huns of the West too.

The fresh power of newly gained self-confidence of the Han Empire striving with great ambition for monumentality and grandeur is the result of the conquer of the not less monumental and not less grandious Hun Empire. The one-time architecture of this formerly flowered empire is squealing about this grandeur, which had so great effect once upon. After the fall of Hun Empire, the civilization of Hun-descendant peoples remain continuous for some centuries, then these formations became replaced by decay of the 7th-8th-9th centuries. And the Empire of Decay demands its share agressively and with its double-quick manner. Stein still was able to take photos from the wall of a shrine full of reliefs, but which became annihilated by the fury of the agressive desert for the end of century. Whether, how many undiscovered remains became destroyed by the wilderness in the recent millenias, if only some decades able to harm so much? Consequently we can not show the total complexity in our architectural adventure, only we can make a coarse sketch of the probable picture of once lively fortresses and towns of ancient Turan.

The Hö-xi pass was controlled by the Huns, and it became conquered by the Chinese under Emperor Wu-ti at the beginning of the Han-dynasty. The remains of watching towers and walls are the marks of once united fortification system, or a town of Huns.

The ceramics-fragments found in the yard of fortress Lö-tö are older than 2000 years, but even the newest ones are older than 1000 years. Hence it is a fortress of the Huns. But fortresses were town also, so blue-eyed artisans and merchants lived inside too. Still we do not know what is hidden under the surface, since archeological excavations never executed here.

The meaning of Kara Khoto is “Dark Fortress”. It became depopulated in 13th century, still 2 millenias old watch-towers guarding the way. It is one of the architectural masterpiece of Huns, including a town with huge temples, the thick Mesopotamian-like mud-walls still 9 meters high. Its stupa is dominate the landscape from great distance with royal highness of at least 18 meters, magnificantly ruling the scenery transforming the dead ruins into a picturesque and grandiose monument of the ancient greatness.

Lou-lan was a huge kingdom flowering along the “Silk Road”, which sunken down in the huge sand-ocean of Takla Makan desert. It is an important check-point of “Silk Road” at the Eastern corner of the Takla Makan and it was the location of desperate battles between the Hun and Han Empires. The palaces of aristocrats and rich officials made from huge poplar-timbers and their foundation is still firm. Fa-hsien, the noted Chinese Buddhist pilgrim in his journey to India passed through this Buddhist big-power, and he wrote in his records, that 4000 monks live there, which accounted about a quarter of all inhabitants. The ruins of the once huge stupa of the town is still fascinatingly captivating.

Miran was a Buddhist settlement 170 kms distance from Lou-lan. Its fortress still existing.

Niya was also a Buddhist town and its ruins are covering a 20 kms x 10 kms territory. The remains of the once monumental stupa is still 6 meters high. 1,5 kms distance from the stupa is the remains of a big chambers with 8 meters long sides. Stein named it No.1. ruin-group in 1914, when he was here. 1 km distance the No.2.ruin-group can be found, in which the town-hall is included. 3 kms distance from the central stupa was a palace, the dwelling place of Choboi governor of Niya, who became appointed by the king, just as the governors of every other oasis. He collected taxes, governed town, was the eyewithess of child-birth and he was marriage-adviser. The Kingdom of Lou-lan had a well-organized public administration, which included Niya and several other towns.

The town of Turfan was a target of military attacks of Chinese emperors already in period of B.C. It is the biggest ruin-complex along “Silk Road” covering 1,5 square kilometres. The city’s adobe-walls were 12 ms high formerly.

The shape of forthress of Chiao-hö remind to a ship, and it became carved out from one single rock of 300 ms wide and 1500 ms long. The town-fortress have a magnificant look of bird’s-eye view. It gave home for 7000 souls, its function was the defense of Western side of the basin of Turfan.

The once monumental dimensions of Kucha’s fortification challanged the huge proportions of Changan’s forthress. Kucha was the biggest Buddhist centre of Turan and had more, than 100 shrines, in which 5000 monks practiced. 20 kms from town are the remains of Subashi citadel-system, which was the biggest Buddhist-complex of Turan.

On the nothern slope of Tien-shan near the present town Cholton Ata an ancient town stood on the bank of lake Issik-kul. It was an ancient town, and important station of the “Silk Road”. The ruins of this town now under the water of the lake, to where it became fallen due to some disaster (maybe by earthquake) became sung out by a legend. The skeletons of its former inhabitants still guard the streets of this underwater town. They just lie as they would sleep silently in different positions since the moment of catastrophe, keeping their tools and weapons nearby.

The Kingdom of Davan on the Valley of Ferghana had 70 towns near the present border of Kirghizia and Uzbeghistan. Its several hundred thousand citizens were experts of equestarian battle-techniques, in which they used bow and lance. In the time of peace they cultivated grain and rice, produced wine. From 5th c. B.C. by the domestication of wild-horses of area, those graceful, strong “Heavenly Horses” came into existence, which were admired by the generations of Chinese poets, artists and emperors, and which were used by the Hunnish cavalry called “Heavenly Army”. These slenderly elegant, charming, brave and enduring horses possessing long neck and feet vanished from Central Asia later on, but in the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. they were the precondition of Hun victories.

Khoresm is one the best captivating example of the Hunnish architecture 2 millenias ago, which had towns and fortifications spreading over several hundred square kilometres. Their fascinating monumentality had basic role in the evolvement-process of later European fortress-architechture.

The town Kuva was one of the main center of Buddhism.

In Telmez the Buddhism was the best popular religion in the 1st c. B.C.

Merv is the farest point in westward direction, where Buddhist remains became found. The territory of the huge ruined town covering 60 sq. kms.

Penjikent was an important town in present Tajikistan, which became built by the Hun-descendant Sogds in the 6th and 7th century. It included custom-houses, temples, bazars and two-story houses. The town became destroyed by the Arabs at the 8th century.

In order to understand the contemporary architectural difference between Turan and Europe we must examine the work of Kurt Godefroid, the late professor of the University of Brussels, which show us the life of aristocrats’ highest rank of 8th-10th century of Europe (84.,). This aristocracy lived in typical knight’s castle, built on the top of a hummock with a deep fosse full with water around it, and the entry of castle was through a wodden bridge. On the top of hummock a fence ran around made of coarse thick boards, which became cut out from timber. This was the main-court and the castle, in which the stumpy, tower-like residence of the knight stood, which was botched together with timbers and coarse boards. At front was a wooden bridge starting from the outer-court, the place of the implements buildings and livestock, and where peasants of “fortified castle” gained protection in case of war or other disasters. Otherwise the peasants gave more than 80 % of the inhabitants of contemporary Europe living in holes, caves but mostly in cottages made of mud and board, the main building materials of Europe. The stone-buildings appeared in the 12th century (though we have some datas about earlier examples), but even a century later the main building material were wood and mud just as it were in Turan. The situation not changed in 11th century much compared to the 8th-10th century, as we may follow it by the work of professor Sidney Painter of New York. The life of aristocracy was rough, they had no more luxory as their peasants had. A knight had chance to eat and drink as much bread, wine and beer as which found room in his stomach. Although the quantity was vast, but it had no variety. He had enough cloth, but they were made by the unskilled hands of his servants. The knigh’s castle still was simple and uncomfortable with a hall and a chamber. He conducted his daily affairs in the hall with his official, vassals and peasants, he took his meal here on one of the tables made of rough boards. The hall was eyewitness of the wild upheavel of different things, since it was the scene of savage whirling of servants, armed men, vassals, guests, prostitutes, peasants and the members of family. The servants spent the night here on the tables and on the floor. The chamber was the private department of the knight’s familiy, where the high-ranked guest became entertained too. Here the lord spent the night with his family sleeping in bed, while their personal servants sleeping on floor. In some cases the castle had a chapel. Some castle became so luxorious for the 12th century, that a dressing-room became glued to sleeping-chamber. The castle itself was very cold and blowy, because the windows were totally open, or were closed by boards only. If it was made of timber and wood (and till the 13th century most of European houses made of wood and mud) the knigh had no heating, since the fire-use was possible only in stone castles. But because the chimney is appeared only around the end of 12th century, the smoke was unbearable. If a winter shelter would be offered by the knight for someone us, we would chose the more pleasant mud-cottage of one of his peasants, though the pigs sleeping in the same space filled the space with pig-flagrance, but they have some heat, which was more boreable, than the smoky or too cold castle (85.,112). Understanding the quality of life of the luxoriant layer of European elith, let’s take a glance to late Turan, where the structure of Hunnish fortified castles was similar. There was some difference too. The tower-residence had several storeys. Although it made from wood and abode but by a central heating system not only the tower was heated, but the little dwelling houses of the main-court too. It happened in the 5th century B.C., 1600 years prior to the introduced 11th century of Europe (86.,).

Now let’s try to reconstruct some other aspects of this Turanian architecture. The main features of it were determined by Indian patterns manifesting itself in that striking point, which is stated by Parmentier: the same element is repeated in decreasing order (87., 15), and which is obvious in the case of towers of both Indian and “Gothic” architecture, as well as the Turanian way of building too. The wooden temples of Transylvania has the same patterns, since the Carpathian-area is eyewitness of Hunnish architectural elements’ survival. The “double-roof” is widely spread (88.,) /pict.49/, which is a typical East-Asian phenomene /pict.50/, and this folk-architecture still depository of those old Asian features, which became part of medieval European architecture later on: due to Attila’s victory /pict.51/. The main feature of caricature is the stressing of some important caracteristicals, hence we may percept the Cindarella Castle of Disneyland as the caricature of Gothic architecture/pict.52/, nevertheless just these caracteristicals prove, that it is the further development of the East-European woodden architecture /pict.53/, where we can discover the Indian tower-repetition. This is caracteristical of “Gothic” style, as we see on the castle of Nyon, Switzerland of 13th century /pict.54/too, as well as on its kin-silouette of Varanashi /pict.55/ or several other sacral buildindings of India. Examples can be found all over Europe, since obvious, that similar elements had primal impact on the evolution of Western architecture, and even the Tower-Bridge of London is not Gothic, but Hunnic /pict.56/. The line can be continued. If it can be supposed not without reason, that the Gothic is rather Hunnic, almost the same can be said about the Romanesque. Namely Parthia developed a revolutionaly new way of stone-architecture, and their monumentally arched buildings are those precedents, which had immeasurable effect on the architecture of Roman Empire(Osten, H. H. v.: “Die Welt der Perser”, 1956), by which it became adopted and this form is became known all over the world in the interpretation of the 19th century as “Romanesque”. We can rise the question: is it Romanica” or “Parthica”?, which is especially exiting, if we know, that Parthians are a branch of Scythians or Huns.

Several aspects of this Hun-Scythic building-style is worth for further consideration. The 3, 5, 7, are the sacral numbers of the Orient, which are represented in the sacral architecture too. We may regard as kin not only the 3-storied temples of Eastern Europe with the 3-storied Korean stupas /pict.57/ and Chinese pagodas, but it had further Western relations as we may see in case of Temple of Heaven in Beijing /pict.58/ and the San Bartolomeo temple of Bergamo /pict.59/, but the 3 level of wooden-temples of Ukrainian Tarnavka /pict.60/, and Sub-Carpathian Uzsok /pict.61/ and Sóslak /pict.62/, as well as the bell-tower of Felsõvály (90.,)/pict.63/ are members of this group. The construction-style of Hungarian temple of Hollókõ /pict.64/ is twin-construction of the pagoda of the old Chinese capital Xian /pict.65/. No matter, that the Hungarian tower has 3 story, while the Chinese has 7, since both numbers are sacral with definite meaning: but in the case of comparison, the esthetical caracteristicals make their twin-quality unambigous, with which we arrived to an other set of forms, which was general across in early Eurasia. We may draw similar conclusions, if we touch the problem of the so called “Székely-gate” /pict.66/ used by Székelys, the group of Transylvanian Hungarians, which was generally used in Europe. The roofed gate of Nagyalmás /pict.67/ is kin of the gate of Forbidden City of Peking /pict.68/, or the gate of Hétfalu /pict.69/ with a gate of Okinawa /pict.70/ or Tun-huang. An archaic variation of gate from Sajókeresztúr /pict.71/ would regarded by a Chinese as Chinese-gate, and also, the twin of Hungarian tached-gate /pict.72/ can be found on an old-Chinese ink-painting /pict.73/. At Tiszacsécse of Hungary not only the roofed gate decorate the simple, but well-designed architectural complex under a Mahabodhi-tower with roofed fence /pict.74/, since the united style of roof on building, fence and gate determine the caracteristicals of not only the streets of old settlements of Hungary, but the streets of Forbidden City too /pict.75/. Finally we can’t rule out the possibility, that one aspect of the ancient Eurasian architectural style remained in the special roof-complex of Japanese fortresses - as Kumamoto /pict.76/or Okayama /pict.77/ is - and in the roof-form of the church of Ukrainan Bielavce /pict.78/.

A more and less united Eurasian style of Turan was able to evolve, since behind of it a matured spiritual structure was with its unquestionable inner dynamism and a sweeping power, which considered sacral, and which was in the axis of culture. This culture was created by that system of education which helped to gain this sacral power, and because the towns of Turan were full of instuitions of sacral education decorated with mass of Mahabodhi-stupas, the silhouette was full with a forest of slender, sky-scrapingly elegant towers just in the same way, as we know it well from the engravings of the splendid views of medieval Nuremberg /pict.79/, Buda /pict.80/, or Paris.


IV., Spiritual Roots and the Arts

But let’s continue our investigation with the further analysis of that sweeping spirituality, which determined their arts. Since most part of possible Turanian findings still uncovered, and the research is at the very beginning, let’s regard the Sogdian art as one of the primal standard-bearer of the art Hun-related peoples.

The Hun-descendant Sogdians were responsible for the development of that extremely elegant and lofty style between 5th-8th c., which had big impact to the art of both Orient and Occident. The Sogdian traders were the part of the contemporary Changan, where they lived in colony, and many Chinese sculptures depicted the group of these funny and caracteristically big-nosed foreginers. These “Western Barbarians” called “Huren” had basic rule, that this refined Sogdian-style (called “Persian Sasanaidan”)became adopted by Tang-China. The importance of this style was high, because it paired with a spirituality, evolved out in North-India. This spirituality is manifested itself in that famous “Ghandaran style”, which became further developed by the Sogdians, and from this further developed style not only the art of Eastern-Asia evolved out, but which gave the basic impulses for the evolvement of the art-style of Western-Europe too. This Ghandaran style came into existence partly due to Greek influences brought by conquests of Alexander the Great, which had fertile impact obviously. Nevertheless to state, that the grandeur, which the name Ghandara means in the Eurasian spirituality can be the result of the influence of some cold - though technically perfect - statues, which the Old-Greek art means: is overstatement. Without profound spirituality there is no profound art. And although the perfection of the Ghandaran statues is not total in many cases, since there are problems with proportion sometimes, but in sum total this art is more perfect, as the Greek one is. Not technically, but spiritually, since the art is about spirit first of all: nevertheless due to the still globally valid Europocentric perception of the history, a really profound analysis of the spiritual aspects of this art still not happened, which would be especially actual in connection with Ghandara.

The Ghandaran type of art of Bamijan (Afganistan) is evolved in the 3rd-4th century, liberating itself from Greek influence and with realization of clear Indo-Scythian type wall-painting. It had decisive role in the evolvement of that etherian elegant style, which manifested itself perfectly in Penjikent, and which became the main determinant factor of different local styles of Scythian territories. Nevertheless the roots of this style reaching back to the remote south-western direction, to Gagashar, an abode-fortress of Scytho-Parthians, and the contemporary center of Zoroasterism of B.C.period. The German Ernst Herzfeld still was able to take photos of 2000 years old intact frescoes in 1929, unfortunately they became wounded for today. But remains of frescoes help to establish, that contemporary wall-paintings of Tarim-basin are the local variations of this Gagashar-style, which became developed further on by the refined Sogdian art, which is called Sasanaidan, so important in the process of formation of both European and Chinese art.


a., Is the Sasanaidan-art Sasanaidan ?

We know from art-history, that the so called Sasanaidan and Late-Sasanidan art had basic impact to different directions. Nevertheless as most book discuss the origin of this Sasanaidan style, we find mostly stereotypes and misleading expressions of the Indogerman historiography, as “Bactrian-Greek” or “Hellenistic-Iranian”. But the real roots of the Sasanidan-art going to be more obvious due to the researches, about which our knowledge still remain quite scanty, since about the Parthian, or Scythian, or through this the Urartu-Hurrian and Luristanian origin of the Sasanidan style we can not hear enough.

Let’s investigate after the question more consequently, going under the surface, basing on Götz (31.,). The newer research made it unambigous, that the Median-Persian and Scythian art can be traced back to the North-Mesopotamian-Urartuan art, and secondarily to the art-style of the Bronzes of Luristan (Ghirshman, R.: “Iran I. - Protoiranier, Meder und Achameniden” 1964, Altheim, F.: “Das Alte Iran /Propylaen Weltgeschichte II.B. 1976/”, Porada, E.: “Alt-Iran” 1962, Jettmar, K.: “Die Frühen Steppenwölker” 1964, Huot, J. L.: “Persien I., /Arc.mundi 1965/”, Pjotrowsky, B.B.: “Urartu, /Ach. Mundi 1969/”, Strommenger, E.: “Fünf Jahrtausende Mesopotamien” 1962, Smöckel-Otten-Maag-Beran: “Kulturgeschichte des Alten Orient” 1961, cited by 31.,). This art of Urartu has close relation with the Assyrian-Mesopotamian art, while this style of Assyria and Urartu is grown out directly from the Hurrian art of 2nd millenia B.C. Since untill that time Assyria was a Hurrian-Mitannitan province for centuries, in which period intensive mixing of population is also provable, yet Urartu was a Hurrian successor-state, since the Urartuan language is the later variation of the Hurrian. This Hurrian art of 2nd millenia B.C. appearing as a mystery for most researchers, and they can not explain, why after a millenia of interval, Sumerian stylistic elements and religo-mythological motives of the 3rd millenia appear at the Hurrians in the 2nd millenia again at large-scale and almost unchanged form. Even we may find these Old-Sumerian parallels in Urartu flowering in the 1st century B.C., and for this the state-system of Urartu is regarded by many researchers as the direct successor of the theocratic Sumerian town-states of the 3rd millenia B.C. (Lehman-Haupt, C. F: “Armenien Einst und Jetz.I., II/1., II/2.,” 1910-31, Ungnad, A.: “Subartu”, 1936, Burney-Lang: “Die Bergvölker Vorderasiens”, 1975, Ghirshman, R.: “Iran I.” 1964, Geotze, A.: “Hethiter, Hurriter und Assyrer” 1936, cited by 31.,). Moreover Ghirshman underlined, that the arrangement of prince’s tombs of the Scythians is the same as the Sumerian king’s tombs of Ur. In Hasanlu an equestrian tomb of Scythian-type from the 9th-8th century B.C. became found and in Amlas a typically Scythian plastic art turned up in the same time, more than 100 years earlier, as the appearance of Scythian findings in South-Russia. According to Ghirshman it means, that the Scythians lived in the Transcausasian-Northiranian area at least from the 8th century, but the same is maintained by Talbot-Rice too. This is understandable, if the motives of contemporary Sumerian metalurgy showed themselves in the royal tombs of Maikop of 2300-2200 B.C. without transition and according to Kõnig, the Bartatua and Madyas Scythian king-names are originated from ancient Cappadokian-Subarian names (Kõnig, F.W.: “Die alteste Geschichte der Meder und Perser /Der Alte Orient XXXIII./”,1934).

The second best important precedent of the Scythian style is which is known as the Bronzes of Luristan, which - according to most researchers - the legacy of those Kassus, who became driven out from Babylonia around 1150 B.C., and they retreated to their original land of the Zagros mountain. We may find the parallels of Bronzes of Luristan across the Eurasian steppe: in the ancient style of Minusinsk around 1000 B.C. (Karasuk culture), in the Ordos-bronzes of ancient Hunnish territories of the curve of Huang-ho, in the earliest Scythian kurgans of South-Russia and in the findings of Hungary (the works of Strommenger, Altheim, Jettmar, Ghirshman cited by 31.,). After such precedents a caracteristically mixed-style built up from Hurrian-Mitannian and Luristanian-Elamian elements appeared between the Caspian- and Urmia Lakes (Kalardast, Amlas, Hasanlu etc.) with its ceramics formed animals, goblets representing high esthetical level made of gold and silver as well as buckles of belt with stag-form from the southern bank of the Caspian Lake. Within this cultural community the so called “cloisonné”-eching appeared first on the hilt of a knife of Hasanlu, and here we can sense the direct precedents of the Scythian animal-style. Also, the treasure-finding of Zivivye from the time around the end of 8th century or the middle of 7th century B.C. is belonging here. The ivory-objects show strong Assyrian-Syrian influences, but in a plate such a double-braided palmette-motive is appearing, which has no parallels in Asia Minor (the cited work of Porada). We can find the precedent of the so called Sasanaidan and Late-Sasanaidan style here. The metal pieces of this treasure show the influences of Urartu but they are strongly mixed with those elements, which became the main caracteristicals of the Scythian art later on. But the pieces of the Pazyryk-finding represent the same style, although it is colored with strong Turanian caracteristicals, just as the Oxus-treasure do, but where we may find several gorgious bracelets with email-inlaid representing matured artistic level (cited by Porada). Part of this art became transmitted to Persians by Medes. So this Hurrian-Urartuian-Luristanian-, or in final analysis: Sumerian-style is the common precedent of both Old-Persian and Scythian art (Pjotrowski, B.B.: “Urartu. - Arch. Mundi, 1969, and the cited works of Porada, Ghirshman, Altheim, Jettmar). The Persians added nothing to this art, but it happened contrary: it decreased into rigid, sematic court-decoration serving only the narrow-spirited representation of the royal family’s esthetical needs, and it wasn’t able to strike deeper roots (Ghirshman).

Renewal came only with the Parthians, who further developed the Urartuian-Luristanian-Scythian traditions with the integration of Hellenistic stylistic elements. But these strong Hellenistic elements of early Parthian period became pale later on, and a powerful, rich and independent art came into existence with style-variants. Only a variant of this Parthian art became adopted by Sasanidan kings making it the official style of their empire similarly to the Old-Persian rulers (the cited work of Porada, Ghirshman: “Iran II. - Parther und Sasaniden” 1962, Lukonin, W. G.: “Iran II. - Arch. Mundi”,1967, Osten, H. H. v.:”Die Welt der Perser” 1956). As we know, the Parthians revolutionized the architecture creating the stone-arch, which is known as “Romanesque” due to dominant interpretations, but they did their revolution with decorations too considered Sasanidan. Since they had wide connections all over Eurasia, and with the Hun Empire too, no wonder (Ghirshman: Iran II.), that significant part of the materials of the royal tombs of Huns in Noin-Ula is originated from Parthia. But Altheim stressed the striking parallels of Parthian animal-style and the bronzes of Ordos-area also, where the main motive was the stag just as at the Scythians (Altheim, F.- Stiehl, R.: “Geschichte Mittelasiens im Altertum”, 1970). Nevertheless the reflexions of Indogerman culture-priority became habit in the 19th century, and they are still too strong: even these newer works are full of unexplainable logical contradictions as we can see it in the book of Ghirshman (Iran I.). After makig clear of the process of evolvement of Scythian style, this Hurrian-Urartuian-Luristanian art (which became adopted by the Persians later on, as he expressed it by his own words) suddenly he call it “iranisch-urartaische Koiné” without any kind of explation, suggesting the cronological priority of the Persian contrary of the Urartuian one. With it he gives the false impression, that the Persian is more ancient, than Scythian. After such suggestion we can not wonder about his conclusion too, when at the end of this questionable chapter he write, that although the roots of the Scythian art of the Eurasian steppes are identical with the Persian one, yet the Scythians took over many things from the Persians. Then he enlist some objects from the kurgans of 5th-4th century B.C., which he regard Persian, though such objects are not exist in the contemporary Persia (Iran I. p. 358-359). The same contradiction can be found at Jettmar too, who point out the origin of the ornaments of the steppes in the Old-Persian Achemenidan art, although he established formerly, that the root of the art of Scythians is the Hurrian-Urartuian-Luristanian world of decorative motives (Jettmar, K.: “Die frühen Steppenwölker”, 1964). Also it is not clear, whether we confront with the printer’s error, when the otherwise excellent Talbot-Rice state, that the style of findings of the Scythian kurgans is close to the Achemenidan style of 8th-7th century B.C. (Talbot-Rice, T.: “Die Skythen”, 1957) Since it is well-known, that we may speak about Achemenidan-Persian motives only after the establishment of the Persian Empire after the second part of 6th century B.C., but the Scythian style of the steppes is far earlier. Such blunders are the result of the law of inertia produced by the huge quantity of historiographic literature accumulated from the 19th century based on absolutely mistaken start-point.

But the Parthian-problem is starting to grow out itself as the key-question of the modern research. For this case we must reconsider more profoundly, which is known by serious researchers, and which finally became outspoked by Altheim (“Das Alte Iran”): the culture-mediator and erudition-creator role of the Parthians is immeasurable. In the huge territory from the Azovi-sea to the Indus, the rulers were the members of the Parthian Arsakidan-dynasty. We know about five kingdoms with Arsakidan kings, as: Parthia, Media, Armenia, Scythia, and Bactria (Gutschmid, A. v.: “Geschichte Irans und seiner Nachbarlander von Alexander bis zum Untergang der Arsaciden”, 1887). From the Parthian-Bactrian kingdom of the Indus-area that Kushan Empire evolved out, which has immense - still not enough valued - importance of the development of the Ghandaran art. Also important, that according to Early-Medieval Armenian sources, the Arsakidans are originated from the Hun-dynasty. The two main branch of the Huns established their empires in two kingdoms ruled by Arsakidan kings. The Ephtalite-Huns occupied Bactria, while Scythia of the Ponthus-Caucasus-Caspian-area, which - according to Faustus Byzantinus Armenian writer - was ruled by Arsakidan Sanesan in the 4th century, who used the title of “King of Maskits and Huns”, gave shelter and possibility of accumulation with strength for the later European Huns. Considering these facts of primal importance, we have some secondary ones also. Artaban Parthian king welcomed the Rising Sun together with his army just in the same way, as the kings of East-Asian Huns did. The traditions, rules, way of living and fighting methods of Parthians, Huns and Hun-descendant peoples are analogous, their chiefs were military-leaders in wars and their judges in peace (Altheim, F.: “Weltgeschichte Asiens im griechischen Zeitalter” I.-II., 1947-1948). The dreaded “Parthian-shoot” of arrow belonged to the Hun-descendant peoples. Here we must recall the question of the alleged Iranian caracteristicals of the so called marginal Persian territories as Sogdiana, Bactria, Choresmia etc. are, as well as the purely Iranian features of the population of Iran itself. It would be more rightful if that ethnic group which we call Iranian, would be regarded as such formation, which is evolved out from its Median (Scythian) roots and later suffered some transformation in its language and its ethnic composition under the impact of non-Scythian elements, but which obviously remained Median (Scythian) in its bases. Since the so called Sasanaidan-style is not Persian nor Sasanaidan, but its roots reach back to such remote deepness of history, when Persia even not existed. It is more close to the Parthians, Huns, Scythians, to Urartu and Mesopotamia, than to that not clearly definable ethnic formation, which became defined as Persian or Iranian by the Europocentric historiography. That type of awareness of life, which became mediated by them, became determinant factor of the culture and spirituality of Turan and East-Asia. It must be obvious also, that in the case of Tang-China with the adaptation of this set of motives are the eyewitness of the sweeping power of not primarily Persian, but Scythian type of life-awareness. Basically it wasn’t other, but reunion of China with that spirituality, from which she grown out.

Nevertheless not only China had grown out from this spirit, but Europe too.


b., Lily-connections

The “fleur-de-lis” is the main column-decoration of Paris’ Saint-Chapelle, the probably beautiest creation of the French Gothic art of 13th century /pict.81/. Hence it known just as obvious symbol of the Frenchness, and it is paired with the image of something very sublimely European. For this case we need the profound understanding of this European symbol of elegance.

The roots of Scytho-Parthian (Sasanidan) art can be found in Mesopotamia. The caracteristic feature of this art is the visualization of laws of natural spontaneity through floral-decoration, and the metaphorical expression of that idea of fertility, which can guarantee the conditions of organic existence: is evolved out from Fertile Crescent. The water is precondition of fertility. Gudea, the Pates of Lagas (c.2350 B.C.) is shown with a vessel of Water of Life /pict.82/, while in a fragment of Mesopotamian relief of Tello, a goddess hold the same vessel in her hands (91., fig.19.). On an other fragment from the falls of the water - coming out from a same vessel - a palmette, a tiny Life-Tree (the symbol of life or fertility) is growing up(92., fig. 292.) /pict.83/. Two millenias later a jug similar to the vessel of Water of Life is appearing in Turan, where Stein found it carved into a beam of ceiling of Niya, on which the waterfall-like flood of the vine-claspers are streaming out from the vessel. The semantic continuity from Mesopotamia to Turan is unambigous (76., 193) /pict.84/, as we see the line of Tochar and Uygur noblemen from fragments of Turanian wallpaintings, when the precious symbol of fertility is keept in hand /pict.85/, or serving as a crown /pict.86/, as we see in the Hunnish diadem of Shipovo of 3-4thcentury /pict.87/, or the headgear of early Japanese warrior-leader of the Yaoi-period about the same time. The palmette evolving into a life-tree on the crown of the Korean Shilla-kingdom from 4-5th century /pict.88/, where there are several motives all around of diadem. The Shilla-like arrangement of the palmettes on crone of Gengis Khan from the 13th century /pict.89/we can see just the same on a famous statue of the Louvre from the 14th century /pict.90/ with an originally Hunnish crown-form, but this Scythic fertility symbol is the main ornament of the royal sceptre too.

The Life-Tree is the manifestation of the world-creator, world-governor, and world-preserver force, hence it is the symbol of fertility and creativity too. By Eliade’s words, it is the symbol of the continuity and constancy of the renewal and everlasting life. The palmette is the original form of “fleur-de-lis”, and it is one of the best often used motive of the Scytho-Parthian (Sasanaidan) art, and mostly it is visualized as the part of flamboyant richness of the sarmentose decoration /pict. 93/, although the more organic, and most frequent symbol is that sarmentose motive which is more directly run wild and wavingly meandering, while ending in the form of “fleur-de-lis”/pict.94/, and exist independently at most case, as we see as the ruby-inlay of a golden dagger of Huns from the 3-4th century /pict.95/, or Scythian cloth-decoration, as we may see it from 3.-2. century B.C. /pict.96/. Its function is to serve as the manifestation of Life-Substance, Life-Force, being the symbol of vajra (means “diamond” or “adamantine” in Sanksrit), the Highest Spiritual Power, which is compared with the gem of supreme value, the diamond, in whose purity and radiance other hues are reflected while it remains colorless, and which cut every other materials, itself being cut by nothing. It is the symbol of that Firmness and Persistence, with which necessary to maintain the preconditions of Organic Existence, and in this sense it became applied in the Tantric iconography in India, Turan and East Asia /pict.97/. Since the Tantric origin of Christianity, it appear in very similar way in the Christian iconography. Shining instance of the survival of Scythic cloth-decoration of 3.-2 century B.C. a millenia later on that coat of an accessory figure of a Sogdian mural of Penjikent from 7th century/pict.98/, on which almost the same Tantric “fleur-de-lis” is, which decorate the cloth of both Mary and Christ on the famous 13th century ivory sculpture of the Louvre entitled “The Coronation of Virgin”/pict.99/ more, than a half millenia later.

No wonder such high degree of similarity, since it is in the noblest places of both culture. And the strongest medieval protector of the noble ideas was that French and European instuition of knighhood, which is based on the example of the mounted Huns, and on their ideals manifested in the Tantric “fleur-de-lis”.


c., Halos, saints and culture heros

But these ideals weren’t able to came into existence automatically, and they were the result of strong, continious effort. But in order to understand the real significance of these ideals, we must to understand the nature of such kind of effort, or rather to understand the extraordinary importance of a special kind of teaching.

The prototype of this special kind of teaching came into existence in Ajanta of India, and the main tool of such kind of education was the teaching-cave. This form of complex education became further evolved in Tun-Huang at such extend, which not happened nor before and after, and this originally Indo-Scythian process of self-purification had primal role to develop China and East-Asia to such high level of culture, which is unique, moreover singular today. To arrive to this singular point, Kashgar was the first step. Although Kashgar now is at the western end of China, but it was not so 2 millenia ago, but it belonged to that culture-sphere united with the area on the other side a range of the Pamir Mountains, where the Indo-Scythian influences were the strongest outside of India. When Ashoka, the Lion of India, the Great Conquestor united the subcontinent, he created a model-state, with the application of the spiritual heritage of “Fertile Crescent”, evaluating it according to the demand of his age. He found, that the most valuable qualities are those ones, which invite the observation of the demands of compassion. Hence Ashoka became the main protector of peace and compassion. He established shelters and hospitals for the beggars, poor and defenceless ones all over India, considering, that the world can get out from the crisis of his age, if it will be able to think in a new way, if the sum total of compassion, empathy and love would be kept, and it would be able to make others to keep and respect it as a law. He became the patron of Buddhism, because he found, that the tenets of Buddha are able for the perfect definition and systematization and practical application of these demands. He sent missions not only all over to India, but to foreign countries too, hence Ceylon, Afganistan and the Pamir-region became Buddhist due to his activity. The ancient culture-zone of Turan situated on the western slope of Pamir was the eyewitness of important events, belonged together. As the result, the names as Fayaz-tepe, Takhti Sangin, Airtam, Dalversin-tepe, Khalchayan, Penjikent, Mug and Afrashiab represented an area of highly refined spirituality reflected by their art (10., “The Oasis and Steppe Routes”). Kashgar belonged to this culture-zone, which thanks to Ashoka, became Buddhist already in the 3rd century B.C. Consequently we may find such educational instuitions of Kashgar already in the 3rd century B.C. far away from the clamours of the world, which aim were the profound reformation of the human caracter - too often owerhelming negative qualities - by the purification of way of thinking, of abilities, of the realm of emotions and instincts (or of mentality), by which the liberation of hidden spiritual abilities may give possibility for the realization of an optimal type of personality. Such kind of educational reform led to the realization of an of intensive caracter-refinement. The instuition of teaching-cave appeared in Turan in the 3-2nd century, almost immediately after of its introduction in India (being not only the best westernward as such an instuition, but also the most ancient such formation in the territory of present China. They are known as the San-sieng-tung caves. Its paintings became destroyed by the Islamic invasion, but their style can be reconstructed by the remains of the frescoes, which spreading further east with the style of the sculptures determined the whole art of the Tarim-basin for a millenia. The Kizil-caves became establihed in the 3rd century A.D. (a century earlier to Tun-huang) became engraved on the stone-walls enclosing the river Mazard (existing at least for a half-millenia parallel with Tun-huang, serving as an example) and became developed further till their destroying by the Islamic conquest in the 9th century. It was the second biggest sacral complex along the “Silk Road” after Tun-huang. These 236 caves exist carved into the 2 kms long stone walls of the picturesque mountain ridge. The 47 Kurusuguha Buddha-caves came into existence in the 4th -5th century A.D. Nevertheless the best wonderful is the sacral cave-complex of Kum-tura, which has 106 rooms carved into the stone from 30 kms west of Kucha. But the biggest West-Chinese Buddhist ruin-complex is the Subashi fortress-system from 20 kms from Kucha to northwest direction. Yan-chui town was on the southern slope Tien-shan, and it had more than 2000 monks being a Buddhist town in the time of Tang-period. The Thousand Buddha Caves of Shukishini cover at least 1 square-kms ruins of buildings belonging to it, since Kucha was the biggest sacral center of Turan, or present West-China. Evidently, the biggest educational centers are also connected to the name Kucha. In Lou-lan were 4000 monks - a quarter of the inhabitants - in Kucha and its vicinity there were at least 5000 monks, but their ratio was quite hight in the other towns too. Consequently the Turanian appearance of the caracter-educating university of the teaching-cave complex in Kashgar means a millestone. This form of education from the 3rd-2nd century get the chance to spread for further eastward direction. The importance of Kashgar became more great due to Kanishka. For case of a more stronger unity and for the higher level of the spirituality of the Scythian Kushan Empire, Kashgar and its vicinity became the eastern border of that art-style, which came into existence in Ghandara.

Ghandara gave the main impulse for the evolution of East-Asian art throught the sacral art of Turan, although those parallels are not enough widely known, which are can be quite striking at the Western end of Eurasia. Since the depichering of Buddhas, Bodhisattwas and heavenly beings (the angels of Christianity) is resulted such suggestive overall view of a superior world (as the outcome of Tantric caracter-educating universities), which was not without effect in the western part of Eurasia in the process of evolvement of the Christian art. The soft, delicate face, elegant handkeeping and warm glance of frescoes and statues of Kum-tura, Kizil, Bezeklik, Toyuk, Kara-khoja, Miran, Shikshin, Kucha, Turfan, Khotan, Penjikent, Merv, Hadda and other well-established places of Scythian art /pict.100/ wasn’t without effect for the non-religious, but sensitive spectator. Nevertheless the devout follover of new European Christian order, who tried to find the appropriate visual expression of his faith, was in feverish, still pious searc after something appropriate. But if we compare to the halos, mandorlas of Christs and saints to the representations of Turanian culture-heros (Buddhas, Bodhisattwas etc.) coming into existence prior to the Western images, it seems us, that they found, what they wanted. Let’s compare the dome-painting of Simsim /pict.101/ to a Catalan cupola-fresco /pict.102/, or a Turanian wallpainting /pict.103/ to an other Spain one /pict.104/, or the Asian ancestors /pict. 105, 106, 107, 108,109,110, 111/ to their European descendants /pict.112, 113, 114/, where these similarities /pict.115/ came primarily by that gnostic mediation, which partly transformed into Coptic /pict.116/. But we may take a glance to the jewellery, since one can’t understand: why is Ostrogothic the pin of 5th /pict.117/, Visigothic the crown of 7th /pict.118/, Merovingian the buckle of 7th /pict.119/centuries, pieces became promoted Gepidic /pict.120/, German /pict.121/ or just French /pict.122/, with obvious Hunnish predecessors from the 3-4th century /pict.123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135/? Seeing the original art of Germanic North, as the Viking plaque /pict.137/, buckle /pict.138/, carved head /fig.139/ of 7th century, and a Danish relief of 10th century /pict.140/, we may draw the lesson: since we can’t find such type of highly developed art in other parts of Europe too, but we can trace it in Turan, obviously Altheim is righ pointing out, that Attila not lost the famous Battle of Catalaunum, consequently he had the chance to create the Western art, culture and civilization.

Still one may wonder, why the historians don’t know history, and why art-historians don’t know art, and its history.



Without wanting to engage into anti-gay campaign, we would like to state, that everyone has the right to love in that way as one want. Nevertheless fashion to regard the gayness as something sublimely elegant, is just the part of overall talking beside the point, as we experience the same in the false interpretation of the real roots of Western civilization, with which the world-culture became castrated.

We would like to say apology to the venerable representatives of the gay-movement, but in the name of democracy, we must spell out some opinions. Known fact, that there is “inborn”, “acquired” and “learnt” homosexuality, in which the “inborn” type has genetic problem and he feel attracted by the own sex, while the “acquired” one suffer in psychic wounds due to early childhood, hence he has horror to appeal to the other sex. With the former type there is nothing to do, which construct the lesser part within the group of two, while the second type is curable, and this group is less than 5% of all homosexuals. Consequently the “learnt” group is that majority, which is engaging into adventures on basis of the “why not?” approach. While the first two group has a degree of shame, and they hide from publicity, the warriorsome and proud propagators of this fashion caming out from the “learnt” group, but without philosophy except the much repeated “joy-principle”. Actually, the “learnt” type is bisexual, only he want to be striking, or maybe too unskilled to handle the questions around the male-female questions, but actually it is not his problem first of all, because (generally speaking), our culture is quite ignorant about it. Whether, not would be better to handle the all phenomene not as a private-question, but something which represent overall ignorance in an important topic? Since the human being became created by nature in a special way, whether such approach is not the humiliation of the human dignity? Although the gays like to refer to their dignity, but it is just eye-washly surfacial compared to that dignity, which is obviously coming from the perception of Tantra, in where the god-like aspects of human being became unfold basing on sex. It respects the transcendent, fertile-creative aspects of every human being, while this kind of dignity of otherness is in profound connection with the surface-scraping mentality of our general approach to the profound wholesomeness of human spirit and dignity. The pseudo-liberalism of this otherness prefer illusion, which resulted the moral-relativism, or value-chaos of our time, and created by such “free-thinkers” who has no slighest idea about the real freedom (94., 165-173). Since the precondition of real freedom needs limits in the form of a value-system. The “joy-principle” is important, nevertheless one may question the ways, as the Gay Power try to realize it, since the normally traditional perception of sexuality (in which we can’t include the habits of the declining Greco-Roman world, although if the Western civilization want to decline at any prize: well, that is quite another story) able to accomplish more. According to the Taoist master Li Dong-xuan lived around 5th-7th century A.D.:”Among the ten thousand things under the sky the human being is the best precious one. Among the things, which can help prosper the human being, nothing has such great importance as the male-female unification. Its model is the Heaven, its pattern is the Earth, it govern the Yang and lead the Yin. Those ones who understand its meaning will be able to feed their nature and extend their life, those ones, who are not able to percept the real importance of it will harm ownselves and will die before their time” (95., 73). The Tantric illustrations represent the origin and evolvement (Genesis)of the world by realizing things about which Master Li spoke, which are the manifestation of such kind of mental-spiritual procedures, which existed in their sheed in the Fertile Crescent, and which methods can point the way-out from our critical state. Since it is obvious, that not only that kind of instinct-limiting asceticism can be the determinant factor of a culture, which became general due to the Inquisition, but an instinct-expanding or creative too, by which we may rebuild our consciousness. The Gay Power not will save the Western civilization from the fate of the decaying Roman Empire, since it is a kind of continuity of that spiritual blindness, which became imposed by the Inquisition, but a more organic approach is suggested by the modern Taoist master Mantak Chia. According to the teachings of ancient Tantric and Taoist masters, the vital power of one drop of semen is equal of hundred drops of blood. The Hindu holy men allways speak about the life-elixir or “amrita”, which can be gained by Tantric methods. The life-power of semen not only saved, but recirculated and used over and over. Due to it the system of endocrine glands able to bathe in energy due to the “amrita” or overproducing of that male hormone called “testosterone” (which make a male masculine) in that extend, which make able not only the process of rejuvenation, but the development of extra creative abilities at such an extend, which is not avaible in other situation. An uncredibly high degree of creativity is avaible due to that life-power, which is concentrated semen. To understand the extraordinary possibilities, it would be important to draw the lesson of Kinsey Report of USA made in the 50’s. According to it, an avarage male make c. 5,000 ejaculations per lifetime. To calculate the flood of fluid normally lost: 5,000 (ejaculations) X 3 cc (fluid) = 15,000 cc. This is 15 liters or roughly 4 gallons of fluid. The semen spent in an avarage ejaculation has a volume of 2 to 5 cubic centimeters, which contain 200,000,000 to 500,000.000 individual sperm cells. YOUR BODY HAS ATOMIC ENERGY IN IT ! This is an astonishing statistic: a single male ejaculation scatters two to five hundred million sperm cells. Cast upon two hundred and fifty million female eggs, a single ejaculation could conceivably generate the present population of the USA. Multiplying this figure by 5,000 ejaculations per lifetime yields a numerical indication of the seminal power. The normal male ejaculates enough semen to generate one trillion human lifes. Within the capacity to sire more than two hundred times the present population of four billion on the planet! In a very real sense every man can create a stockpile of sex-energy literally more potent than the atomic bomb. IF THIS IMMENSE RESERVOIR OF PSYCHOSOMATIC OR SPIRITUAL ENERGY WOULD BE REDIRECTED TOWARDS CREATIVITY, THE BURNING PROBLEMS OF MANKIND WOULD BE SOLVED. IF IT WOULD BE REDIRECTED TOWARDS LOVE AND SPIRITUAL HARMONY, THE POSSIBILITIES FOR A PEACEFUL EXISTENCE SEEMS TO BE UNLIMITED. Nowadays everyone is eager to conserve natural resources, but few even dream of conserving the most critical resource of all: one’s own vital energies. The careful harboring of the energy stored within man’s seed is a truly rational energy program. Yet this aspect of conservation is overlooked by politicians and health experts. But this would a really revolutionary conservative program fitting well to the demands of our age. Namely if the human race is not quickly infused with a new life energy to render it more harmonious than it has been for most of the last 2,000 years, we are all, earthly masters and mortals, threatened with an untenably harsh existence, if no extinction. There are so many wizards of the computer, stock market, test tube, and spectator sport but so few of that art of life (96., 5-23), which can rise even the momently no more, than 8-10% of brain usage to 50-70% (97., 67).

As the Gay Power is the castration of man’s god-quality, the Europocentric approach of history is the castration of Europe, with which the possibility of creation of THAT ART OF LIFE which still existed in our ancient Turan. When Mr.Hunyadi, the goldsmith-restorer and director of Treasury of Archbishopric of Esztergom-Kalocsa (Hungary), in his lecture at Gisela-congress held in 1987 at Passau (Germany) rised the attention of experts for the necessity of an overall testing of the famous goldsmith’s works all of Western Europe, since the possibility, that they are the members of a single big family of treasures: a lenient and smiling murmur ran over the room, which followed by the speech of Prof. of Regensburg University, calling his analysis about such kinship as a fictious fable, finding such test not actual. Nevertheless there are goldsmith-techniques, which never executed in Western-Europe, and which are supposed caracteristicals of that treasures of Avars, which became robbed in 795-796 by Charlemande from the Carpathian-basin, and which treasures had primal impact for the evolvement of Christian art (98., 7-13). These treasures (filled 20 or 30 great cart of team of oxen) were gold and silversmith products with precisious stones and enamel works, and their quantity and quality induced the process known in the art-history as the Renaissance of Charlemande.

But unfortunately the Western expertise still seems to be too prinkingly “gay” spiritually lacking the brave and honest masculinity to confront with the final cause of that hormone-havoc, causing crime-waves, dramatic decrease of (not only the sperm-count, testosterone-level, consequently the decrease of) our creative abilities too (5.,). It seems to be quite timely to mediate the possibility of reconstruction of that Tantric art of life, which was well-represented by the stollen Avar-treasure surely, and which not only created the Western civilization, but can empower us to revitalize it in its present critical period being the only method, which may turn to the counter-direction of the present hormone-destroyer tendencies.

According to the Taoist master Li Dong-xuan lived around 5th-7th century A.D.:”Among the ten thousand things under the sky the human being is the best precious one. Among the things, which can help prosper the human being, nothing has such great importance as the male-female unification. Its model is the Heaven, its pattern is the Earth, it govern the Yang and lead the Yin. Those ones who understand its meaning will be able to feed their nature and extend their life, those ones, who are not able to percept the real importance of it will harm ownselves and will die before their time” (95., 73). The Tantric illustrations represent the origin and evolvement (Genesis)of the world by realizing things about which Master Li spoke, which are the manifestation of such kind of mental-spiritual procedures, which existed in their sheed in the Fertile Crescent, and which methods can point the way-out from our critical state. Since it is obvious, that not only that kind of instinct-limiting asceticism can be the determinant factor of a culture, which became general due to the Inquisition, but an instinct-expanding or creative too, by which we may rebuild our consciousness.

According to the teachings of ancient Tantric and Taoist masters, the vital power of one drop of semen is equal of hundred drops of blood. The Hindu holy men allways speak about the life-elixir or “amrita”, which can be gained by Tantric methods. The life-power of semen not only saved, but recirculated and used over and over. Due to it the system of endocrine glands able to bathe in energy due to the “amrita” or overproducing of that male hormone called “testosterone” (which make a male masculine) in that extend, which make able not only the process of rejuvenation, but the development of extra creative abilities at such an extend, which is not avaible in other situation. An uncredibly high degree of creativity is avaible due to that life-power, which is concentrated semen. To understand the extraordinary possibilities, it would be important to draw the lesson of Kinsey Report of USA made in the 50’s. According to it, an avarage male make c. 5,000 ejaculations per lifetime. To calculate the flood of fluid normally lost: 5,000 (ejaculations) X 3 cc (fluid) = 15,000 cc. This is 15 liters or roughly 4 gallons of fluid. The semen spent in an avarage ejaculation has a volume of 2 to 5 cubic centimeters, which contain 200,000,000 to 500,000.000 individual sperm cells. YOUR BODY HAS ATOMIC ENERGY IN IT ! This is an astonishing statistic: a single male ejaculation scatters two to five hundred million sperm cells. Cast upon two hundred and fifty million female eggs, a single ejaculation could conceivably generate the present population of the USA. Multiplying this figure by 5,000 ejaculations per lifetime yields a numerical indication of the seminal power. The normal male ejaculates enough semen to generate one trillion human lifes. Within the capacity to sire more than two hundred times the present population of four billion on the planet! In a very real sense every man can create a stockpile of sex-energy literally more potent than the atomic bomb. IF THIS IMMENSE RESERVOIR OF PSYCHOSOMATIC OR SPIRITUAL ENERGY WOULD BE REDIRECTED TOWARDS CREATIVITY, THE BURNING PROBLEMS OF MANKIND WOULD BE SOLVED. IF IT WOULD BE REDIRECTED TOWARDS LOVE AND SPIRITUAL HARMONY, THE POSSIBILITIES FOR A PEACEFUL EXISTENCE SEEMS TO BE UNLIMITED. Nowadays everyone is eager to conserve natural resources, but few even dream of conserving the most critical resource of all: one’s own vital energies. The careful harboring of the energy stored within man’s seed is a truly rational energy program. Yet this aspect of conservation is overlooked by politicians and health experts. But this would a really revolutionary conservative program fitting well to the demands of our age. Namely if the human race is not quickly infused with a new life energy to render it more harmonious than it has been for most of the last 2,000 years, we are all, earthly masters and mortals, threatened with an untenably harsh existence, if no extinction. There are so many wizards of the computer, stock market, test tube, and spectator sport but so few of that art of life (96., 5-23), which can rise even the momently no more, than 8-10% of brain usage to 50-70% (97., 67).

The Europocentric approach of history means the castration of Europe, with which the possibility of creation of THAT ART OF LIFE is became killed, which still existed in our ancient Turan.





When Mr.Hunyadi, the goldsmith-restorer and director of Treasury of Archbishopric of Esztergom-Kalocsa (Hungary), in his lecture at Gisela-congress held in 1987 at Passau (Germany) rised the attention of experts for the necessity of an overall testing of the famous goldsmith’s works all of Western Europe, since the possibility, that they are the members of a single big family of treasures: a lenient and smiling murmur ran over the room, which followed by the speech of Prof. of Regensburg University, calling his analysis about such kinship as a fictious fable, finding such test not actual. Nevertheless there are goldsmith-techniques, which never executed in Western-Europe, and which are supposed caracteristicals of that treasures of Avars, which became robbed in 795-796 by Charlemande from the Carpathian-basin, and which treasures had primal impact for the evolvement of Christian art (98., 7-13). These treasures (filled 20 or 30 great cart of team of oxen) were gold and silversmith products with precisious stones and enamel works, and their quantity and quality induced the process known in the art-history as the Renaissance of Charlemande.

But unfortunately the Western expertise still seems to be too prinkingly feminine spiritually lacking the brave and honest masculinity to confront with the final cause of that hormone-havoc, causing crime-waves, dramatic decrease of (not only the sperm-count, testosterone-level, consequently the decrease of) our creative abilities too (5.,). It seems to be quite timely to mediate the possibility of reconstruction of that Tantric art of life, which was well-represented by the stollen Avar-treasure surely, and which not only created the Western civilization, but can empower us to revitalize it in its present critical period being the only method, which may turn to the counter-direction of the present hormone-destroyer tendencies.

We can’t put our head into the sand like an ostrich not percepting the fact, that the mankind is one and undivisable.

The spiritual bases of the once existed Eurasian unity was connected by those organic substances, which created the Western civilization, and which were the final cause of those East-Asian “miracles” too, of which we had the chance to be the eyewitness not long ago. Contrary to the present problems, the possibility of development of East still is promising, due to its organic culture directing to the realization of Transcendence. But possibility of the New Renaissance of the West is also given in the case of consideration of this Turanian heritage. It would be the basic demand of our age, which composed into words by the Holger Kersten: “The mankind must reorientate itself to East in the truest sense of the word. The East is the origin and source of our innermost experiences” (99.,14). We need it for that ability, which will make us able to join our morality to that reality, which is well-reflected by our newest science, because the morality of quantum-physics is the same basically, as that Tantric morality, which we possessed untill that time, when it became blot out from our memory almost a millenia ago by that intolerant spirit of that Holy Inquisition, which can be called proto-fascistic not without reason. Our mere survival demand from us to start a new millenia in moral sense. We must jump over this last millenia on false track, and we must continue there, where we were forced to stop a millenia ago, by transforming our still Inquisition-fueled culture. With the words of Mircea Eliade, we must percept, that the modern man needs a knowledge of ancient perceptions about cosmic order, and the initiation into the secrets of mysterious force called Nature, since the Western gospel of progress can not respond the modern generation’s hunger for a more personal spiritual experience of the Divine. The concepts of a primordial Golden Age still actual, manifesting in Eliade’s term hierophany, which must be understood as the revealing of the real continuity between human and cosmic structures by evocation of the different states of Transcendence. This is possible only by those Eternal Creative possibilities, which are hidden within every humans, but can come out only by the refinement or by the spiritualization of the physical matter, just in the same way, as the alchemist do his job (100.,108-111). For it we must transcend the present Europocentric humanism, with creation of “new humanism”, which reveals the continuity between the structures of human existence and cosmic structures, accepting, that the sacred is an irreducible and universal dimension of human existence and is the base of culture. Alchemy (of ourself) and cosmology are important aspects of the process of rediscovery of forgotten mythic truths. Consequently the perception of the pervasive link between Eastern European folklore and Asian yogic though and practice is inevitable aspect of this process, since the Orient held unlimited sources of the possible Occidental renewal (101.,149-151). For this case a new perception of history is necessary. Wess Roberts wrote: “Attila’s legacy is generally unfamiliar to us in the Western World. We are naive about his historical importance as genious civilizer, his open mindedness and richness of views, in all, with which he far exceeded Alexander the Great or Ceaser” (102.,). According to Prof.Carr: “the hard core facts in history...(is full)...with the surrounding pulp of disputable interpretation” (103., 9-10).”The history we read...though based on facts, is, strictly speaking, not factual at all, but serie of accepted judgements” (103.,14).“Study the historian before you begin to study the facts...When you read a work of history, always listen out for the buzzing. If you can detect none, either you you are tone deaf or your historian is a dull dog. The facts are really not at all like fish on the fishermonger’s slab. They are like fish swimming about in a vast and sometimes inaccessible ocean, and what the historian catches will depend, partly or chance, but mainly on what part of the ocean he chooses to fish in and what tackle he chooses to use - these two factors being, of course, determined by the kind of fish he wants to catch. By and large, the historian will get the kind of facts he wants” (103., 23). Since according to Prof. Carr, the history is not other, but a search for new, usable values, and “what Freud did was to extend the range of our knowledge and understanding by opening up the unconscious roots of human behaviour to consciousness and to rational enquiry. This was an extension of the domain of reason, an increase in man’s power to understand and control himself and therefore his environment, and it represents a revolutionary achievement “(103.,138-139). By the Asian traditions is held, that the human being has god-quality, and this god-quality became trampled into dust by the suicidal relativism or ignorance of vital life-substances, since we are far to know that atomic-bomb-caracteristicals of the human creative- or destroyer ability, which is able to create- devastate civilizations. Since we are just in our way to devastate one, it really important to touch the social aspects of our existence. We just touched it at the beginning of this study in connection of that short Chinese poem of Ming rock-carving, since it became solved in appropriate degree in Confucianism, and especially in Neo-Confucianism, where the delicate balance of the vertical and horizontal aspects of the being became elaborated at appropriate degree.

Consequently the substance of the New Paradigm is the ability of regaining our ability to concentrate to the real origin and process of evolvement (or Genesis) of the Western civilization, with which we can stop the present self-destructing tendencies. We need the Revolution of that ORGANIC DIGNITY, which still was caracteristical for the spirituality of Turan, and which would be us to reintegrate into the order of nature, especially into The Order of Our Deepest Nature.

We need a new type of power-base, which able to ensure the everlastingly humane.





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